Animal Models of Parkinson ́s Disease
Essay from the year 2003 in the subject Biology - Neurobiology, grade: 1,0 (Distinction), Oxford University (Department of Experimental Psychology), 72 entries in the bibliography, language: English, abstract: Parkinson’s disease (PD) was the first neurological disease to b e modelled in animals. Early models of PD used toxins which selectively targeted dopaminergic neurons, such as reserpine, 6 -hydroxydopamine, and 1 -methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6tetrahydropyridine. These initial models have greatly contributed to the current understanding of the pathogenesis of PD and have proven to be valuable tools in the development of novel therapeutic approaches, but have failed to mimic important characteristics of PD. Recently, it has been found that chronic systemic exposure to the pesticide rotenone can reproduce specific features of PD in rodents. Moreover, the association of a-synuclein mutations with some cases of familial PD have motivated the development of genetic models of PD in mice and Drosophila. The present essay gives a brief survey of the clinics and pathophysiology of PD, discusses the different animal models of PD currently available, and briefly compares the suitability the rodents and primates as models for human PD.
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6-hydroxydopamine 6-OHDA lesions 6-OHDA model administration agonists Animal models antiparkinsonian apomorphine ATP levels biochemical blood-brain barrier bradykinesia brain Carlsson chronic clinical cognitive crosses the blood-brain cytoplasmic D-amphetamine Deumens dopamine dopaminergic cells dopaminergic neurons Drosophila effects experimental model fails to mimic familial PD features of PD genes Gerlach and Riederer Hantraye human PD hydrogen peroxide idiopathic PD inclusions inhibits complex innervation intracellular J. W. Langston Jellinger L-DOPA L. E. DeLanney locus coeruleus Mashlia mechanisms underlying PD mice mitochondrial respiratory chain models of Parkinson's models of PD monkey Moreover MPP+ MPTP MPTP exposure MPTP model MPTP-induced MPTP-treated primates neurodegenerative Neuroscience neurotoxicity nigrostriatal pathway novel therapeutic oxidative stress Parkinson's disease parkinsonian pathophysiology of PD PD patients phenotype postsynaptic postural instability primates rats receptors reserpine model rest tremor rodents rodents and primates rotational behaviour rotenone rotenone model selective SNPC species striatal DA levels striatum substantia nigra symptomatology tetrahydropyridine toxin unilateral Varastet