Annual Report of the Association of Ontario Land Surveyors, Issue 15

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Association of Ontario Land Surveyors., 1900 - Surveying
 

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Page 135 - ... but if the same cannot be satisfactorily ascertained, then the Surveyor shall measure the true distance between the nearest undisputed posts, limits or monuments, and divide such distance into such number of lots as the same contained in the original survey, assigning to each a breadth proportionate to that intended in such original survey, as shewn on the plan and field-notes thereof, of record in...
Page 190 - There is some difference of opinion as to the relative strengths of gravel and broken stone in concrete. The natural inference is to suppose that a rough, irregular surface will secure greater adhesion than one that is smooth. However that may be, there is little reason to doubt that gravel will make a good concrete, but there is a right and wrong way of using gravel. It is not uncommon to find gravel just as it is taken from the pit, and cement mixed to form a concrete.
Page 191 - The concrete should be mixed at a point convenient to the work, in a box which is sometimes specified as water-tight, but the concrete will quickly make it so. It should be mixed in just such quantity as is required, and a constant stream kept passing to the work. It should be laid in layers, and each layer thoroughly rammed until moisture appears on the surface. It is very necessary to see that the sand and stone used in making the concrete are clean, that it is free from clay, loam, vegetable or...
Page 190 - ... concrete proceeds. Within the casing and firmly tamped against it, there should be placed fine concrete to a. thickness of about six inches. This will form a shell for the abutment, inside of which large stones may be placed in rack-and-pinion order, ends up. There should be a space of at least two inches between the stones filled with fine concrete, and all firmly rammed. The outer shell of fine concrete should always be kept built up six inches or so in advance of the rubble work. The rubble...
Page 189 - ... broken stone. It is recognized that the greatest strength in concrete can be obtained by making the mortar rich in cement, rather than by lessening the quantity of stone, but beyond providing for a strong adhesion of mortar and stone, little is gained by making the mortar materially stronger than the stone. This applies to crushing strength rather more than to the tensile strength required to some extent in the arch.
Page 101 - The boundaries of the claim which run in the general direction of the creek or gulch shall be lines along bed or rim rock, three feet higher than the rim or edge of the creek, or the lowest general level of the ; gulch within the claim, so drawn or marked as to be at 'every point three feet above the rim or edge of the creek, or the lowest general level of the gulch, opposite...
Page 191 - ... unless the stone, as intimated, has been dampened. When the work ceases for the day, or is for other reasons interrupted, the surface of concrete should be kept damp until work is resumed. When work is in progress in hot weather, any exposed surfaces should be kept damp and protected from the rays of the sun ; otherwise the surface will, in setting too rapidly, be interlaced with hairlike cracks which, filling with water in winter and freezing, will cause the surface to scale off. The same scaling...
Page 190 - ... large stones may be placed in rack-and-pinion order, ends up. There should be a space of at least two inches between the stones filled with fine concrete, and all firmly rammed. The outer shell of fine concrete should always be kept built up six inches or so in advance of the rubble work. The rubble should be laid in layers and each layer well flushed with a layer of fine concrete. The lumber used in making the curbing or casing should be dressed, tightly fitted and firmly braced, so that the...
Page 189 - Given a sample of broken stone in a vessel, the requisite quantity of mortar can be gauged by pouring water into the vessel until the stone is submerged. The quantity of water used will indicate the amount of mortar required to completely fill the voids in the stone. The proportionate amount of cement needed to fill the voids in the sand can be gauged in the same way. The proportions of cement, sand and broken stone obtained in this way would provide, with perfect mixing, a mortar in which the voids...
Page 189 - ... indicate the amount of mortar required to completely fill the voids in the stone. The proportionate amount of cement needed to fill the voids in the sand can be gauged in the same way. The proportions of cement, sand and broken stone obtained in this way would provide, with perfect mixing, a mortar in which the voids in the sand are filled with cement, and each particle of sand coated with cement; it would provide a concrete in which the interstices of the stone are filled with this mortar, and...

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