## Antenna And Wave PropagationPhysical concept of radiation in single wire, Two wire and dipole, Current distribution on a thin wire antenna.Fundamental Parameters of AntennaRadiation pattern, Radiation power density, Radiation intensity, Directivity, Gain, Antenna efficiency, Beamwidth, Bandwidth, Polarization, Antenna input impedance, Elementary idea about self and mutual impedance, Radiation efficiency, Effective aperture, Antenna temperature.Linear Wire AntennasRetarded potential, Infinitesimal dipole, Current distribution of short dipole and half wave dipole, Far-field, Radiating near-field and reactive near-field region, Monopole and half wave dipole.Antenna ArraysArray of two point sources, Array factor, n-element linear array with uniform amplitude and spacing, Analysis of broadside array, Ordinary end-fire array, Hansen-Woodyard end fire array, n-element linear array with non-uniform spacing, Analysis of binomial and Dolph-Tchebyscheff array, Scanning array, Superdirective array.Aperture AntennasField equivalence principle, Rectangular and circular aperture antennas, Horn antenna, Babinet's principle, Slot antenna, Reflector antenna.Ground Wave PropagationFriis free space equation, Reflection from earth's surface, Surface and space wave propagation for vertical and horizontal dipole, Field strength of space wave, Range of space wave propagation, Effective earth's radius, Effect of earth imperfections and atmosphere on space wave propagation, Modified refractive index, Duct propagation, Tropospheric propagation.Ionospheric PropagationStructure of ionosphere, Propagation of radio waves through ionosphere, Refractive index of ionosphere, Reflection and refraction of waves by ionosphere, Critical frequency, Maximum usable frequency, Optimum working frequency, Lowest usable high frequency, Virtual height, Skip distance, Effect of earth's magnetic field. |

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### Contents

Chapter2 Fundamental Parameters of Antenna 21 to 258 | 2-1 |

Examples with Solutions 246 | 2-46 |

Review Questions 256 | 2-56 |

Chapter4 Antenna Arrays 4 1 to 476 | 4-1 |

Magnitude but with Progressive Phase Shift End Fire Array 430 | 4-30 |

apter5 Aperture Antennas | 5-1 |

Chapter7 Ionospheric Propagation 7 1 to 738 | 7-1 |

AppendixA Miscellaneous Antennas A 1 to A 20 | A-1 |

AppendixB Poynting Vector and Poynting Theorem B1toB8 | B-1 |

### Common terms and phrases

amplitude angle of incidence antenna array antenna is given average power axis bandwidth beamwidth broadside array BWFN Calculate called circuit conductor Consider corner reflector critical frequency current distribution current element dielectric constant dipole antenna distance Dmax duct earth earth's surface effective aperture electric field electromagnetic wave electron density end fire array equation expressed field strength free space ground wave half wave dipole height Hence Hertzian dipole high frequency horn antenna HPBW interms ionization ionosphere layer linear magnetic field magnitude major lobe maximum radiation obtained parabolic reflector paraboloid path phase point sources power radiated Poynting Poynting vector radiation pattern radiation resistance radio wave radius receiving antenna reflected reflector antenna refractive index Rrad shown side lobe signal sky wave slot antenna Solution space wave Substituting value surface wave Tchebyscheff polynomial terminals theorem transmission line transmitting antenna troposphere vector velocity voltage waveguide wavelength write