Anti-personnel Landmine Detection for Humanitarian Demining: The Current Situation and Future Direction for Japanese Research and Development

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Katsuhisa Furuta, Jun Ishikawa
Springer Science & Business Media, Jan 24, 2009 - Technology & Engineering - 212 pages
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There are more than 70 countries in the world that suffer from the presence of landmines. Annually, between 15,000 and 20,000 people are killed or injured by these mines so there is a pressing need for advances in technology to help to remove them.

Anti-personnel Landmine Detection for Humanitarian Demining reports on state-of-the-art technologies developed during a Japanese National Research Project which ran from 2002–2007. The conventional, and often reliable, method of landmine detection is to use a metal detector to pick up small amounts of metal within the mine. Unfortunately, minefields are frequently strewn with small metal fragments which can camouflage landmines greatly hindering progress using this form of demining. The challenge, then, is to develop practical detection systems that can discriminate between anti-personnel (AP) landmines and randomly scattered innocent metal fragments.

The results of research proposals from universities and industrial sources adopted by the Japan Science and Technology Agency are presented here. This book concentrates on various aspects of three main approaches to AP mine detection:

• enhancing and confirming the results of metal-detection scans using ground penetrating radar (GPR);

• using robot vehicles and manipulators to operate within minefields remotely; and

• methods of sensing the explosives within mines.

Basic results are presented in the fields of GPR, nuclear quadrupole resonance, neutron thermal analysis and biosensors. The integration of these methods for workable robot operation is demonstrated.

The project was carried out in conjunction with mine action centers in Croatia, Cambodia and Afghanistan and evaluation data from field trials of the technologies are also reported.

The results presented by Professor Furuta and his colleagues will be most useful to anyone who is involved in the use or production of technical equipment associated with landmine removal. In addition, academics researching advances in this field and those working in remote sensing, mechatronics and robotics will find much to interest them and a co-ordinated body of work with which to expand their own studies.

 

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Contents

Introduction
3
12 Japanese Action for Humanitarian Demining
7
121 Shortterm RD Project
8
122 Midterm RD Project
13
References
15
Principles of Mine Detection by Groundpenetrating Radar
18
222 Reflection of Electromagnetic Waves from Land Mines
20
223 Clutter
23
66 Experiments
98
67 Summary
100
References
101
Humanitarian Demining Operation with the Teleoperated Buggy Vehicle Gryphon with a Mine Sensors Equipped Arm
103
72 System Details
105
722 Manipulator Arm
107
724 Marking System
108
725 Control Box
109

23 GPR Survey
24
232 GPR System
26
Development of Dual Sensors and Deployment in Mine Affected Countries
27
32 ALIS
28
322 Sensor Head
29
324 Data Processing and Display
31
325 ALIS Operation
33
332 Test Lane Trial in Cambodia 2006
36
333 Test Lane Trial in Croatia 2007
38
334 Quality Control Test in Minefields in Croatia 20062007
40
34 BuggyMounted System
42
36 Summary
43
References
44
Development of an Array Antenna Landmine Detection Radar System
45
42 Antipersonnel Landmine Detection Radar Using an Array Antenna
46
422 Development of the Wideband Antenna
47
423 Creating an Antenna Array
48
425 Architecture of the Landmine Detection Radar
49
43 Prototype
50
44 Detection Tests
52
442 Array Antenna Laboratory Testing
53
443 Evaluation Testing in Japan
54
444 International Evaluation Testing
55
45 Scanimage Improvements
56
452 Improving Identification Accuracy Through Superresolution Signal Processing
57
453 Applying MUSIC Processing to Pulse Radar
58
46 Reducing the Size and Weight of the Array Antenna Landmine Detection Radar
60
47 Installation on a Gryphon Allterrain Vehicle
61
References
62
Test and Evaluation of Japanese GPREMI Dual Sensor Systems at the Benkovac Test Site in Croatia
63
52 Test and Evaluation Overview
64
521 Benkovac Test Site
65
522 Four Devices to Be Evaluated
66
53 Test and Evaluation Plan
67
532 Trial Procedures
70
54 Experimental Results
74
542 Probability of Detection
76
543 ROC Curves and the Role of GPR
77
55 Summary
79
Annex 51 Comprehensive Result of Probability of Detection PD
80
Environmentadaptive Antipersonnel Mine Detection System Advanced Mine Sweeper
83
61 Introduction
86
62 System Architecture
87
63 Sensing Technologies
89
632 Signal Processing for Geographyadaptive Sensing
91
642 Sensing Vehicle
93
643 Access Vehicle
95
644 Assist Vehicle
96
65 Information Management System
97
73 Field Tests
111
732 Improved Methodology for Evaluating Metal Detector Sensor Images
113
74 Objective Evaluation of Robotics System for Humanitarian Demining
115
75 Summary
116
References
117
Annex 71 Procedures for Test and Evaluation 16
118
Development of a Mine Detection Robot Mine Hunter Vehicle MHV Controlled Metal Detector and Multifunctional Hydraulic Manipulator
122
82 Concept and Implementation of Mine Hunter Vehicle MHV
124
83 Controlled Metal Detector Mounted on Mine Detection Robot
127
831 Methods of Estimating the Position of Buried Landmines
131
832 Experiments on Mine Detection
132
833 Experimental Results
133
84 Control and Operation of a Teleoperated and Masterslave Hydraulic Manipulator for Landmine Prodding and Excavation
137
841 Operation Strategy
139
842 Masterslave Manipulator
140
85 Summary
141
References
142
Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance for Explosive Detection
145
93 NQR Mine Detection
150
94 Demonstration of NQR Mine Detection
153
96 Summary
154
References
155
Development of a Highperformance Landmine Detection System Through Gammaray Detection by Using a Compact Fusion Neutron Source and Du...
157
101 Principle of Landmine Detection through Nuclear Reactions
158
102 An Inertialelectrostatic Confinement Fusion IECF Neutron Source
160
103 Advanced Dualsensors for Gammaray Diagnostics
163
104 Configuration of Humanitarian Landmine Detection System
164
105 Criteria for Landmine Detection
165
106 Landmine Imitators and Conditions for Testing
166
107 Test Results of Neutroncaptured Gammarays Diagnostics
167
108 Test Results of Backscattered Neutron Diagnostics
172
Acknowledgments
173
Development of a Compact Neutron Capture Gamma ray Imaging System for Antipersonnel Landmine Detection
174
112 Compact and Intense Neutron Generator
176
113 Compact High Energy Gammacamera
179
114 Principle and Algorithm for Gammaray Imaging
183
115 Integration of NPGA System
185
116 Performance Tests on Antipersonnel Landmine Detection
186
117 Summary
191
Acknowledgments
192
Development of an Electronic Dog Nose Based on an SPR Immunosensor for Highly Sensitive Detection of Explosives
193
122 Odor Sensor
195
124 Antibody Production
197
125 Indirect Competitive Assay
199
126 Sampling System for Nitro Aromatic Compounds Using a Preconcentrator
201
127 Summary
204
Index
207
Copyright

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About the author (2009)

At present, Katsuhisa Furuta is Professor of School of Science & Engineering and School of Science and Technology for Future Life at Tokyo Denki University as well as Professor Emeritus of Tokyo Institute of Technology. He is to be the President of Tokyo Denki University from June 2008.

Professor Furuta’s research interests lie in the broad areas of System Control, Robotics, Mechatronics, and Computer Vision. He is has done pioneering research in the control of pendulums using the so-called Furuta Pendulum which has been used for control study and education in many countries. He received many awards including of Honorary Doctorate - Helsinki University of Technology (1998), IEEE CSS Distinguished Member (1998), and IEEE Third Millennium Medal (2000). He is a Fellow of SICE (1992), IEEE (1996), IET (2003), IFAC (2006), and Honorary Member of SICE (2006). He also served as Member of Science Council of Japan (1997-2003).

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