Antiquities under siege: cultural heritage protection after the Iraq war
As Saddam Hussein's government fell in April 2003, news accounts detailed the pillage of Iraq's National Museum. The museum's looting grabbed headlines worldwide and public attention briefly focused on Iraq's threatened cultural heritage. Less dramatic, though far more devastating, was the subsequent epidemic of looting at thousands of archaeological sites around the country. Illegal digging on a massive scale continues to this day, virtually unchecked, with Iraq's ten thousand officially recognized sites being destroyed at a rate of roughly 10 percent per year. This book contains the first full published account of the disasters that have befallen Iraq's cultural heritage, and it analyzes why the array of laws and international conventions; the advocacy efforts of cultural heritage organizations; and the military planning and implementation of cultural protection operations all failed, and continue to fail, to prevent massive and irreversible loss. Looking forward, the book identifies new planning procedures, policy mechanisms, and implementation strategies capable of succeeding, so the mistakes of Iraq will not be replicated in other regions in crisis whose cultural heritage are at risk. Both archaeologists and policy-makers will benefit from this detailed study.
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THE CASE OF IRAQ AND THE CONTEXT OF LOOTING
The Western Market in Iraqi Antiquities
PREVENTING FUTURE LOOTING AFTER ARMED COMBAT
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1954 Hague Convention Afghanistan agencies April archaeological sites archaeologists areas armed conflict Article assistance authorities Baghdad Blue Shield Carabinieri CIMIC Civil Affairs civilian combat commander Committee coordination countries CPIA Cultural Affairs cultural heritage protection cultural sites cuneiform cuneiform tablets cylinder seals damage develop Dhi Qar efforts emergency establish Event of Armed experts funding guards Hatra illegally illicit Illicit Antiquities implementation important Institute international law Iraq Museum Iraqi Iraqi antiquities issues itage legislation looters looting Matthew Bogdanos ment mission Monuments NGOs Nimrud objects Office organizations personnel planners planning police units postconflict preservation protect cultural heritage protect cultural property protection of cultural ratification reconstruction require response safeguarding SBAH Second Protocol sites and artifacts situation stability operations stability police staff stolen tion trade treaty tural U.S. Army U.S. forces U.S. government U.S. military UNESCO World Heritage World Monuments Fund