Applications of Synchrotron Radiation: Micro Beams in Cell Micro Biology and Medicine

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Springer Science & Business Media, May 31, 2007 - Science - 218 pages
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Physics and engineering governing the applications of synchrotron radiation is based on enormous achievements during more than one hundred years in the ?led of X-ray physics and technology. The contents of this book, starting with the very general aspects of synchrotron radiation investigated, have been developedby numerousscientist andexperimentalistin this ?eld during the past 20 years. The readers are recommended to visit the websites of major synchrotron facilities in the world, and update their knowledge of this rapidly changing and progressing ?eld. Since this book covers a wide range of topics related to the experimental aspects, from the physics to biology, in many occasions it does not cover the many important works by scientists in the ?eld. A note of acknowledgement must begin with a sincere apology of shortcomings in referring to all the important works in the ?eld. The author is very much indebted to Professor Atsuo Iida of Photon factory, Tsukuba Japan, where most of the experiments and achievements reported in this book were initiated. I should express my thanks to all the researchers in High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Institute of Material Structure Science (Photon Factory) and Japan Synchrotron Rad- tion ResearchInstitute (SPring8),who made the experiments possible for me and my colleagues who performed the main experimental topics during 1995 to 2003 presented in this book. Contribution by Professor S.
 

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Contents

Introduction
2
Synchrotron Radiation and Xray Fluorescence Spectroscopy
5
22 Advances in Synchrotron Development
7
23 Examples of Synchrotron Radiation Facilities
11
24 Synchrotron Radiation Xray Fluorescence Analysis SRXRF
14
242 Detectors
15
A Typical Spectrum
16
244 Background Level in Detected Spectrum
18
53 Investigation of the Process of Neuronal Differentiation
116
532 Experimental Procedures and Results
117
533 Discussion
119
54 Conclusion
123
References
124
Culture Procedure of Mouse ES Cell
125
5A2 Preparation of Mouse PA6 Cell Feeder Layer Requirements
128
5A3 Neural Differentiation from Embryonic Stem Cells
129

2444 Bremsstrahlung Radiation of Photoelectrons in the Sample
19
25 Quantitative XRF Analysis
20
252 Development of Computer Programs for Quantitative XRF Analysis
22
2522 Algorithm and Basic Equations for the Spectrum Analysis and Quantification
24
2523 Minimum Detection Limit
30
2524 Conclusion and Discussion
32
26 XANES Analysis for Metalloprotein in Biomedical Samples
33
262 Beam Line Setup and Experimental Instruments
35
Xray Absorption Fine Structure Spectroscopy
37
32 Xray Absorption Fine Structure
38
33 EXAFS and XANES
39
34 Measurement Procedure
41
36 Chemical Shift
43
37 Chemical State Imaging and Selectively Induced Xray Emission Spectroscopy
44
References
45
SR Microbeam Analysis at Cellular Level
47
422 Culture of Macrophages
48
4222 Procedures for the Cell Culture
49
4224 Morphological Observation
55
423 SR Measurement
58
424 Experimental Results
59
42421 Culture in Cr Chloride Solution Environment
75
42422 Culture in Fe Chloride Solution Environment
76
42423 Summary
77
43 Elemental Images of Single Neurons by using SRXRF
80
432 Procedures of Cell Culture and Morphological Observation
81
4322 Procedures of Cell Culture
82
433 Sample Preparation and Experimental Methods
85
4343 Results
87
4344 Summary
88
435 Experimental Results
89
4352 Result of Xray Absorption Fine Structure Analysis
100
4353 Results of EPMA Imaging
101
43532 Results
102
436 Discussion about the Interactions between Neurons and Foreign Metal Elements
103
References
104
Investigation of Differentiation of Mouse ES Cells
106
52 Investigation about the Effect of the Unoriented Differentiation
109
522 XRF Analysis and Results
111
523 Discussion
113
Appendix References
130
Investigation of Neurodegenerative Disorders I
131
62 ParkinsonismDementia Complex
132
622 Sample Preparation
133
624 Discussion
135
625 Conclusion
139
in ParkinsonismDementia complex PDC
140
632 Quantitative Analyses and Fe≥Fe≤ Ratio
144
633 Discussions and Summary
146
634 Conclusion
148
Investigation of Neurodegenerative Disorders II
151
722 Sample Preparation
153
7222 Cultured Mouse Cells Injected with ALS DNA
154
7232 Cultured Mouse Cells Injected with ALS DNA
155
724 Discussion
162
7242 Cultured Mouse Cells Injected with ALS DNA
164
725 Conclusion
165
726 Summary
166
73 Application for Investigating the Mechanisms of ALS
167
732 Material and Methods
168
733 Experimental Results
169
734 Discussion
173
74 Quantitative Analysis of Zinc Copper and Iron in Alzheimers Disease
176
742 Experimental Procedures and Results
177
743 Discussions and Summary
179
75 Cell Degeneration in Friedreich Ataxia
184
752 Experimental Procedures and Results
185
753 Discussions and Summary
186
References
189
SR Analysis of Tissues
193
812 Zinc Distribution in Human Prostate Cancer Tissues and Normal Tissues
194
813 Summary
206
82 Application in the Development of New Implant Material
207
822 Clinical Background and Sample Preparation
208
823 Results
209
8232 Case 2
214
824 Discussion
215
References
216
Index
217
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