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I Gas Detectors
U Solid and Liquid Detectors
15 other sections not shown
a-particles absorbed absorption aluminium argon atomic number background calcium carbon carrier carrier-free centimetre charged particles chemical circuit compounds concentration counting rate counts per minute curve decay detect detector deuterons dose effect efficiency electrons element emission emitted emitters emulsion energy equation example fission fluoride Geiger counter give given gram half-life Hence important ionisation ionisation chamber irradiation isotopes known laboratory large number layer less liquid mass measured method microns millimetres minute needed nuclear physics nucleus nuclide observed obtained phosphor photomultiplier Plate positive possible practical produced proportional proportional counter protons pulse quantity radiation radioactive decay radioactive materials range reaction region result sample scintillation counter sensitivity separated shown in Fig silicon silver slow neutrons sodium solid angle solution specific activity stable standard deviation suitable surface thickness thin thorium tion tissue tracks tritium uranium usually voltage window X-ray y-quanta y-rays