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METHOD OF CHARACTERISTICS
EQUATIONS OF UNSTEADY FLOW THROUGH
16 other sections not shown
air chamber Amer amplitude analyzed assumed boundary conditions cavitation channel Chapter characteristic equation check valve Civil Engrs closed coefficient column separation computed and measured continuity equation control volume cross-sectional area curve dashpot derived determined diameter differential equations discharge line downstream end Engineering Figure fluid follows from Eqs Francis turbine friction losses gate opening governor head losses Hydraulic Transients hydroelectric initial steady-state instantaneous Jour junction liquid load acceptance load rejection mathematical model maximum Mech method of characteristics obtain operation orifice penstock pipeline piping system power failure power plant presented pressure head pressure rise pressure waves Proc procedure pump rated reservoir level Resonance shown in Fig solution solved speed stability Streeter surge tank tion Trans transfer matrix transient conditions transient-state tunnel turbine units values variables Water Hammer water level Waterhammer Analysis waterhammer waves wave velocity wicket gates