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Psychometric Considerations in Language Testing
The Sociolinguistic Foundations of Language Testing
ability achievement testing applied linguistics approach appropriate basis behavior Bernard Spolsky Chomsky Chomsky's cloze procedure cloze test cognitive concept learning concern conversation correlation course criterion diagnostic testing dictation direct proficiency tests discrete-point tests domains educational Educational Testing Service elements examination example expectancy grammar extralinguistic context face/content validity fact foreign language formal global guage guistic indirect integrative tests inter-rater reliability interpretation Lado language assessment language attitude language learning language proficiency language teaching language testing language usage learner linguistic theory measures of language MLAT multiple choice native speakers nature of language notion noun phrase Oller perception phonetic pragmatic tests predict processing psycholinguistics psychometric question real-life recursive transition network relevant reliability response semantic sentences sequence situations skill sociolinguistic specific speech struc structure student subtests teachers techniques test scores testers theoretical tion transformational transformational grammar transitive verb trend underlying verb words