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Electrodes Conventional Approaches
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acoustic wave amplifier amplitude analysis applied atomic force microscope bacteria beam behavior biological biomass biotechnology Blake-Coleman calibration capacitance capacitor characteristic charge circuit component concentration conductivity conductor constant crystal current magnitude density dependent detection detector determined device dielectric dielectric permittivity diffusion dipole displacement effect electric field electrical potential electrode surface electrolyte employed energy equation feedback fermentation field strength Figure film fluorescence fluorophore force growth increases inductive input instrument intensity laser magnetic field mass materials measurement medium membrane metal methods microbial microscopy molecular monitoring optical optical density oscillator output particle passivation permittivity phase piezoelectric polarization population potential difference processes produce properties pulse pyroelectric radiation ratio reactance reduced resistance resonant frequency sample impedance scanning Scanning Tunnelling Microscope sensor signal solution substrate surface acoustic wave suspension techniques temperature test cell thermal tion toroid transducer typical velocity voltage volume waveform wavelength zero