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CHAPTER ONE The First Settlers
CHAPTER THREE Roman Hispania
CHAPTER FIVE The Triumph of Islam
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achieved activities administrative Alfonso Andalusia appearance Aragon army attempt Barcelona became beginning bourgeoisie carried Castile Castilian Catalan Catalonia Catholic central century CHAPTER Charles Christian Church cities classes considered constituted continued Córdoba created crisis Crown of Aragon culture death decisive defend direction economic Empire encomiendas España established Europe fact factor Ferdinand forced foreign France French frontier future Henry Hispania Hispanic historians ideas important industry intellectual interests Islamic Italy John King Kingdom labor land Languedoc later latifundia León Liberal living Madrid means Mediterranean military monarchy movement Muslim Navarre objective organization origins peasants Peninsula period person Philip political Portugal position possible principal problem published reform regions reign result river role Roman ruled social society Spain Spanish spirit successive term tion trade University Valencia Vicens Vives Visigothic