Archaeology and geoarchaeology of the Mukogodo Hills and Ewaso Ng'iro Plains, central Kenya
Seventy-one archaeological sites from the Mukogodo Hills and Ewaso Ng'iro Plains, dating from the Middle Stone Age to the present day, are analysed in this study which seeks to test a series of hypotheses about human adaptation in the Quaternary period in this part of Africa. In essence, Pearl places cultural change alongside environmental change and addresses four main questions: whether the landscape affected the distribtion of archaeological sites in the study area; the nature of land-use patterns in the Middle to Late Stone Age; the impact of the arrival of pastoralism on the environment; whether changing economic patterns could be attributed to environmental change.
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ENVIRONMENT AND ECOLOGY
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alluvium archaeological record archaeological sites artifacts were collected assemblage average flake basalt basalt cores buried cairns calcrete ceramic sherds chert climate complete flake cultural deposits East Africa ecology ecosystem environment erosion Ewaso Ng'iro Ewaso Ng'iro Plains fluvial foragers glaciation Holocene human indicate inselberg Iron Age Isolated Lithic Kakwa Lelash rockshelters Kenya Kipsing River Kipsing surface Kuehn Laikipia Lake Turkana land-use Later Stone Age Lenkiteng Lithic and Ceramic lithic artifacts Lithic Flake Lithic Scatter MSA located approximately LSA sites Maasai Middle Stone Age Mukogodo Hills region nearest archaeological numbers obsidian paleosol pastoralists patterns Peleta Peleta alluvium Peleta Creek Peleta Rock Peleta surface percent n=1 period prehistoric project area Quaternary radiocarbon dates raw material Robertshaw Samburu Seaku River sediments sherds Shordika surface Shurmai and Kakwa Shurmai Rockshelter sites discovered soil southwest bearing species Stone Age sites stone cairns stratigraphic study area survey thick Tol alluvium Tol River Turkana uplands vegetation