Archaeomineralogy

Front Cover
Springer Science & Business Media, May 14, 2002 - Science - 326 pages
1.1 Prologue What is archaeomineralogy? The term has been used at least once before (Mitchell 1985), but this volume is the first publication to lay down the scientific basis and systematics for this subdiscipline. Students sometimes call an introductory archaeology course "stones and bones." Archaeomineralogy covers the stones component of this phrase. Of course, archaeology consists of a great deal more than just stones and bones. Contemporary archaeology is based on stratigraphy, geomorphology, chronometry, behavioral inferences, and a host of additional disciplines in addition to those devoted to stones and bones. To hazard a definition: archaeomineralogy is the study of the minerals and rocks used by ancient societies over space and time, as implements, orna ments, building materials, and raw materials for ceramics and other processed products. Archaeomineralogy also attempts to date, source, or otherwise char acterize an artifact or feature, or to interpret past depositional alteration of archaeological contexts. Unlike geoarchaeology, archaeomineralogy is not, and is not likely to become, a recognized subdiscipline. Practitioners of archaeomineralogy are mostly geoarchaeologists who specialize in geology and have a strong background in mineralogy or petrology (the study of the origin ofrocks).
 

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Contents

Introduction
xiii
12 Organization of the Book
xiv
13 The Ancient Authors
xv
131 Classical Authors and Mineralogy
xvii
1312 Dioscorides ca 4090 ACE
xviii
1314 Vitruvius ca 7025 BCE
xix
1315 Diodorus of Sicily fl ca 5830 BCE
xx
1322 Albertus Magnus ca 12061280
9
78 Tin Sn Minerals
166
79 Lead Pb Minerals
172
710 Zinc Zn Minerals
174
711 Other Ore Minerals and Metals
175
712 Oxidation of Metallic Ores
177
Ceramic Raw Materials
179
82 Clays
180
83 Pottery
185

133 Arab Writers
10
1332 Avicenna 9801037
11
Properties of Minerals
13
23 Mineral Identification Methods
17
232 Petrographic Analyses
19
233 Physical Methods of Identification
20
24 Color of Minerals
22
Exploitation of Mineral and Rock Raw Materials
41
32 Rock Classification and Properties
42
322 Sedimentary Rocks
48
33 Deposits
52
332 Placer Deposits
53
333 Residual Deposits
54
34 Metamorphic Rocks
55
35 Outcrops Mining and Quarrying
58
Lithic Materials
63
42 Microcrystalline Quartz
70
43 Other Siliceous Rocks
76
431 Quartzite
77
432 Opal
78
435 Siliceous ShaleSlateSchist
79
45 Other Rock Types
83
Gemstones Seal Stones and Ceremonial Stones
87
7 Density 253
90
522 Cryptocrystalline Varieties
92
53 NonQuartz Silicates and Minerals
96
532 FineGrained
101
533 Glassy
105
54 Carbonate and Sulfate Minerals
106
55 Oxide Minerals
108
56 Organic Gems
111
57 Other Gem Minerals
113
571 Sulfide Minerals
114
Soft Stones and Other Carvable Materials
117
63 Steatite and Soapstone
120
631 Asbestos
123
65 Marble
127
66 Catlinite
131
68 Sedimentary Rocks
132
69 Volcanic Rocks
135
610 Miscellaneous Rocks
136
Metals and Related Minerals and Ores
139
72 Gold Au
142
73 Silver Ag
147
74 Native Copper Cu
150
75 Other Copper Minerals
153
751 The Copper Ore Minerals
160
76 Iron Fe
161
77 Iron Minerals
164
84 Tempers
186
85 Glazes
187
86 Porcelain
189
87 Glass
190
88 Faience
192
89 FiredBrick Tile and Terracotta
193
810 Refractory Ceramics
195
Pigments and Colorants
197
92 Historical Background
199
93 Iron Oxide Compounds
203
94 Manganese Compounds
208
96 Lead Compounds
210
97 Carbon Compounds
212
99 Carbonates
213
911 Gold and Silver
216
912 Tin Compounds
217
Abrasives Salt Shells and Miscellaneous Geological Raw Materials
219
103 Salt Halite
220
104 Natron
224
105 Alum
225
106 Shells Coral and Fossil Bone
228
107 Other Geological Raw Materials
234
1072 Petroleum Products Asphalt Bitumen and Pitch
235
1073 Sulfur S
237
1074 Mercury Hg
238
1075 Saltpeter Niter
239
1076 Epsomite MgSO47H2O Epsom Salt
240
1079 Fullers Earth
241
Building Monumental and Statuary Materials
243
1121 GraniteDiorite
246
1122 Porphyry
248
1124 LimestoneSandstone
250
1125 Marble
251
1126 SlateSchistQuartzite
252
1127 Gypsum
255
1132 Gypsum
258
1134 Hydraulic Reactions
259
1135 Natural Pozzolana
260
1136 Artificial Pozzolana
261
1137 Modern Portland Cement
262
114 Masonry
263
116 Weathering and Decomposition
267
References
275
Glossary
303
Appendix
309
Rock and Mineral Names Index
315
Geographic Index
321
General Index
325
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