Architecture and Its Models in South-East Asia
This thought provoking study of the development of architecture, and the impact of architectural models on this evolution, in southeast Asia, draws for its early examples primarily from surviving Hindu-Buddhist monuments in Cambodia and Java. Dumarcay argues that, despite the fact that individual physical locations may merit innovation, new construction nevertheless tends to be constrained by pre-existing architectural models, appropriate to the new situation or otherwise, which are held within the collective conscience of a given culture. This tendency may further be strengthened in the event that an insecure regime seeks to employ architectural monuments to aggrandize its political position. The inappropriate use of models may also occur when architectural styles are transplanted from one culture into another. A break from the models of the past-and thus true innovation-may develop only when a master builder both has sufficient confidence in his own artistic vision and works within a context that allows him the freedom to express this vision.
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The Kew pagoda near London
Sketch of the Chanteloup pagoda near Amboise France
Sketch of the Manora pagoda near Pondicherry India
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adapted Angkor Thom Angkor Wat architect architectural models Axonometric drawing B.P. Groslier Banteay Srei Bapuon baray Bayon beamwork BEFEO Borobudur building programme built Cambodia Candi Jabung Candi Lumbung Candi Pari Candi Plaosan Candi Sewu carved central Java central shrine centre changes Coedes collective intelligence completed composition construction decoration door frames Dumarcay dyke east Eastern Baray Eastern Mebon EFEO elements enclosure ensemble example false storeys flood forcing wedges gallery Gunung Gansir Hindu Hinduism inscription inserted irrigation Javanese Jayavarman VII Khmer Koh Ker Kulen Lolei master builder modified monument Neak Pean ninth century oblong plan op.cit original pagoda palace perspective effects Phimeanakas Phnom Bakheng Prambanan Prasat probably reliefs remains reservoir rice Roluos roof Sambor Sambor Prei Kuk seen sometimes South-East Asia space Spean spite stairway stone structure stupa technique temple Cambodia thirteenth century tion tower transformed upper terrace Wat Phu Yasovarman Zhou Daguan