Arenas of Language Use

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University of Chicago Press, 1992 - Language Arts & Disciplines - 419 pages
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When we think of the ways we use language, we think of face-to-face conversations, telephone conversations, reading and writing, and even talking to oneself. These are arenas of language use—theaters of action in which people do things with language. But what exactly are they doing with language? What are their goals and intentions? By what processes do they achieve these goals? In these twelve essays, Herbert H. Clark and his colleagues discuss the collective nature of language—the ways in which people coordinate with each other to determine the meaning of what they say.

According to Clark, in order for one person to understand another, there must be a "common ground" of knowledge between them. He shows how people infer this "common ground" from their past conversations, their immediate surroundings, and their shared cultural background. Clark also discusses the means by which speakers design their utterances for particular audiences and coordinate their use of language with other participants in a language arena. He argues that language use in conversation is a collaborative process, where speaker and listener work together to establish that the listener understands the speaker's meaning. Since people often use words to mean something quite different from the dictionary definitions of those words, Clark offers a realistic perspective on how speakers and listeners coordinate on the meanings of words.

This collection presents outstanding examples of Clark's pioneering work on the pragmatics of language use and it will interest psychologists, linguists, computer scientists, and philosophers.
 

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Contents

Introduction
xiii
Common Ground and Language Use
3
Definite Reference and Mutual Knowledge
11
2 Context for Comprehension
62
Common Ground and the Understanding of Demonstrative Reference
80
Discourse as a Collaborative Process
103
Referring as a Collaborative Process
109
Contributing to Discourse
146
Dealing with Overhearers
250
Concealing Ones Meaning from Overhearers
277
Coordination of Meaning
301
Making Sense of Nonce Sense
307
Understanding Old Words with New Meanings
343
Words the World and Their Possibilities
368
Bibliography
383
Name Index
404

Understanding by Addressees and Overhearers
178
Audience Design in Language Use
201
Hearers and Speech Acts
207

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