Art, biology, and conservation: biodeterioration of works of art
Despite the perception that artworks are timeless and unchanging, they are actually subject to biological attack from a variety of sources--from bacteria to fungi to insects. This groundbreaking volume, which publishes the proceedings of a conference held at The Metropolitan Museum of Art in 2002, explores how the development of these organisms can be arrested while preserving both the work of art and the health of the conservator.The richly illustrated text, containing the writings of over 40 scientists and conservators, is divided into sections on stone and mural paintings, paper, textiles, wood and archaeological materials, treatment and prevention, and special topics. The artworks and cultural properties discussed include, among many others, Paleolithic cave paintings, Tiffany drawings, huts built by early Antarctic explorers, and a collection of toothbrushes taken from Auschwitz victims.
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DIRECTOR S INTRODUCTION
PRESERVING THE TIMBERS OF THE TUDOR WARSHIP MARY ROSE
BIODETERIORATION STUDIES ON PASTELS AND OILBASED PAINTINGS
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acid actinobacteria actinomycetes activity adhesive Albertano algae analysis applied archaeological wood areas artifacts Aspergillus Bacillus bacteria beta-glucans biocides Biodegradation biofilm biological Blanchette CaCO calcite calcium Cape Evans Cape Royds carbonate caused caves cell wall chemical Cladosporium colonization color concentrations conservation crystals cultures cyanobacteria damage decay defibration degradation deterioration effect environment environmental enzymes evaluation fibroin fungal fungi fungus Gordion growth heterotrophic humidity huts hyphae hypogean identified incubation infestation International Biodeterioration irradiation isolated Koestler laboratory layer material melanin methods Metropolitan Museum micro microbial microbial communities Microbiology microorganisms microscope mold molecular monuments mortar mural paintings Museum of Art nitrogen observed organic oxides oxygen paper pastel Penicillium pigments pj pj pj precipitation present protein salt samples solution sP sP sP species spores stains stone storage Streptomyces structure substrate surface techniques temperature tested timbers tion toothbrushes treatment Tumulus Warscheid waterlogged wooden