Artifacts in Behavioral Research: Robert Rosenthal and Ralph L. Rosnow's Classic Books
This new combination volume of three-books-in-one, dealing with the topic of artifacts in behavioral research, was designed as both introduction and reminder. It was designed as an introduction to the topic for graduate students, advanced undergraduates, and younger researchers. It was designed as a reminder to more experienced researchers, in and out of academia, that the problems of artifacts in behavioral research, that they may have learned about as beginning researchers, have not gone away. For example, problems of experimenter effects have not been solved. Experimenters still differ in the ways in which they see, interpret, and manipulate their data. Experimenters still obtain different responses from research participants (human or infrahuman) as a function of experimenters' states and traits of biosocial, psychosocial, and situational origins. Experimenters' expectations still serve too often as self-fulfilling prophecies, a problem that biomedical researchers have acknowledged and guarded against better than have behavioral researchers; e.g., many biomedical studies would be considered of unpublishable quality had their experimenters not been blind to experimental condition. Problems of participant or subject effects have also not been solved. We usually still draw our research samples from a population of volunteers that differ along many dimensions from those not finding their way into our research. Research participants are still often suspicious of experimenters' intent, try to figure out what experimenters are after, and are concerned about what the experimenter thinks of them.
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anxiety artifact behavioral research biased chapter Clever Hans communication control group correlation cues data collectors demand characteristics dependent variable direction discussed earlier effect size effect sizes effects of experimenter employed errors evaluation apprehension Experimental Control experimental situation experimenter and subject experimenter bias experimenter expectancy effects experimenter’s behavior experimenter’s expectancy female experimenters female subjects finding greater hypnosis hypothesis influence instructions interaction interest interpersonal interpretation interviewers Journal kinesic laboratory learning led to expect less male experimenters male subjects manipulation mean measure median menters MMPI observer errors observers obtained participation perception performance person photo ratings photo-rating placebo effect possible predicted pretest principal investigator procedure Psychol psychological experiment questionnaire rats relationship between volunteering replication reported Robert Rosenthal Rosenthal Rosnow sample scale scores sensory deprivation showed significant significantly social class Social Psychology status subject’s response suggest suspiciousness Table task tend tion unintended Unpublished variable volunteers and nonvolunteers