Artificial Life: An Overview
Christopher G. Langton
MIT Press, 1997 - Computers - 340 pages
Artificial life as a tool for biological inquiry; Cooperation and community structure in artificial ecosystems; Extended molecular evolutionary biology: artificial life bridging the gap between chemistry and biology; Visual models of morphogenesis; The artificial life roots of artificial intelligence; Toward synthesizing artificial neural netowrks that exhibit cooperative intelligence behaviot: some open issues in artificial life; Modeling adaptive autonomous agents; Chaos as a source of complexity and diversity in evolution; An evolutionary approach to synthetic biology: zen and the art of creating life; Beyond digital naturalism; Learning about life; Books on artificial life and related topics; Computer viruses as artificial life; Genetic algorithms and artificial life; Artificial life as philosophy; Levels of functional equivalence in reverse bioengineering; Why do we need artificial life?; Index.
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Page 107 - A formal model of computation for sensory-based robotics. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation, 5, 280-293. 63. Maenner, R., & Manderick, B. (1992). Parallel problem solving from nature (Vol. 2). Amsterdam: North-Holland Pub. Co. 64. Maes. P. (1989). The dynamics of action selection. In Proceedings of the llth InternationalJoint Conference on AI (IJCAI 89) (pp.
Page 18 - It would be child's play to shell the road behind the enemy's trenches, crowded as it must be with ration wagons and water carts, into a bloodstained wilderness . . . but on the whole there is silence. After all, if you prevent your enemy from drawing his rations, his remedy is simple: he will prevent you from drawing yours.
Page 185 - The Genetic Language The simplest possible instantiation of a digital organism is a machine language program that codes for self-replication. In this case, the bit pattern that makes up the program is the body of the organism, and at the same time its complete genetic material. Therefore, the machine language defined by the CPU constitutes the genetic language of the digital organism.
Page 62 - It is obvious that the form of an organism is determined by its rate of growth in various directions; hence rate of growth deserves to be studied as a necessary preliminary to the theoretical study of form.
Page 204 - ... and squishy species, and leave it all to my daughter. Let them set my body out in the jungle to be recycled into the ecosystem by the scavengers and decomposers. I will live on through the rain forest I preserved, the ongoing life in the ecosystem into which my material self is recycled, the memes spawned by my scientific works, and the genes in the daughter that my wife and I created.
Page 185 - Discovering how to make such selfreplicating patterns more robust so that they evolve to increasingly more complex states is probably the central problem in the study of artificial life.” The assumption that machine languages are too brittle to evolve is probably true, as a consequence of the fact that machine languages have not previously been designed to survive random alterations. However, recent experiments have shown that brittleness can be overcome by addressing the principal causes, and...
Page 250 - Cohen formally defined the term computer virus in 1983. At that time, Cohen was a graduate student at the University of Southern California attending a security seminar. The idea of writing a computer virus occurred to him, and in a week's time he put together a simple virus that he demonstrated to the class. His advisor, Professor Len Adelman, suggested that he call his creation a computer virus. Dr. Cohen's thesis and later research were devoted to computer viruses.
Page 207 - Kerem, B.-S.. Rommens. JM, Buchanan, JA, Markiewicz. D., Cox, TK, Chakravarti, A.. Buchwald, M.. Tsui, L.-C, 1989. Identification of the cystic fibrosis gene: genetic analysis. Science 245, 1073- 1080.
Page 197 - Life appeared on earth somewhere between three and four billion years ago. While the origin of life is generally recognized as an event of the first order, there is another event in the history of life that is less well known but of comparable significance. The origin of biological diversity and at the same time of complex macroscopic multi-cellular life, occurred abruptly in the Cambrian explosion 600 million years ago. This event involved a riotous diversification of life forms. Dozens of phyla...
Page 182 - Natural Evolution in an Artificial Medium Until recently, life has been known as a state of matter, particularly combinations of the elements carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and smaller quantities of many others. However, recent work in the field of AL has shown that the natural evolutionary process can proceed with great efficacy in other media, such as the informational medium of the digital computer...