Artificial Reefs: A Disposal Option for Navy and MARAD Ships

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Rand National Defense Research Institute, 2004 - Artificial reefs - 57 pages
By 2005, the U.S. Navy and the Maritime Administration will have accumulated some 360 retired ships in need of disposal. A previous RAND study reviewed disposal options such as recycling (either domestically or overseas) and long-term storage. However, preparation and use of the ships for construction of artificial reefs was identified as the lowest-cost option. With the demonstrated potential attractiveness of reefing as a disposal option, in this study the authors examine the economic, legal, environmental, and programmatic issues that might bear on the Navy2s decision to pursue the reefing option more seriously. They examine the demand for ships to be used as reefs and the impediments to such use, suggest program goals, and review possible business models for their potential to minimize risks and costs to the Navy.

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