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amount anhydride artillery atmospheres ballistite Bunsen and Schischkoff Calculated solid calibres calorimeter before explosion carbonic anhydride carbonic oxide chamber charge chronoscope close vessel composition considerable copper Pressure cordite crusher-gauge curve cylinder deduced deposit determined detonation diagram effect Elswick energy equation error experiments explosion-vessel Fahr feet per second foot-tons furnished gaseous products gauge give given gramme gravimetric density grm.-units Cent grms guncotton gunpowder Hence heat evolved hoists hydrogen initial velocity Internal Ballistics kilogramme lyddite maximum pressure mean mining powder muzzle muzzle velocity nearly nitro-glycerine observed obtained Originally in powder pebble pebble-powder permanent gases placed Plate portion potassium potassium carbonate potassium nitrate probable products of combustion products of explosion projectile realised rounds saltpetre shell shot solid products solid residue specific heat square inch sulphate sulphide sulphur surface Table Temperature of calorimeter temperature of explosion tension tons per square turntable volume weight
Page 78 - ... stated that the consul of the United States at Liverpool had taken charge of the vessel under his instructions, and added, what has unfortunately not been verified by the event, that he entertained no doubt that the promptness of this proceeding would give great satisfaction to his government.
Page 57 - ... it. In 1843 Colonel Cavalli proposed to insert in the bore of a gun a series of small barrels, intended to throw a wrought-iron spherical ball. By ascertaining the velocities of these balls Colonel Cavalli considered that he would bo able to assign the corresponding pressures.
Page 477 - I have found that where the heat developed is low the erosive effect is also low. With ordinary powders, the most erosive with which I am acquainted is that which, on account of other properties, is used for the battering charges of heavy guns : I refer to brown prismatic powder. The erosive effect of cordite, if considered in relation to the energy generated by the two explosives, is very slightly greater than that of brown prismatic, but very much higher effects can, if it be so desired, be obtained...
Page 210 - The proportions in which the several constituents of solid powder-residue are formed are quite as much affected by slight accidental variations in the conditions which attend the explosion of one and the same powder in different experiments as by decided differences in the composition as well as in the size of grain of different powders.
Page 210 - ... that : — 1. Very small-grain powder, such as FG and RFG, furnish decidedly smaller proportions of gaseous products than a large-grain powder (RLG), while the latter again furnishes somewhat smaller proportions than a still larger powder (pebble), though the difference between the gaseous products of these two powders is comparatively inconsiderable.
Page 500 - I have mentioned, blocks and tackle were generally employed. To work, with any degree of smartness, such rude weapons, a very strong gun's crew was necessary, and, indeed, the gun and its carriage were absolutely surrounded by its crew. For the sake of the younger members present, who may probably not have seen the weapons I have been describing, I show in Plate I. * (p. 520), a 32-pr. gun of HMS Excellent, with its crew at practice. In the year 1858 the first great step in artillery progress was...
Page 533 - VESSEL which I have no parallel in the many thousand experiments I have made with these gauges. The gauge itself is fractured in the most extraordinary way, even in some places to which the gas had no access, and the copper cylinder, which when compressed usually assumes a barrel-like form (that is with the central diameter larger than that at the ends, as shown in the diagram, Fig. V.), in this experiment, and in this only, was bulged close to the piston, as you see.
Page 522 - Although changes in the chemical composition of powder, and even changes in the mode of ignition, cause a very considerable change in the metamorphosis experienced in explosion, as evidenced by the proportions of the products, the quantity of heat generated, and the quantity of permanent gases produced, being materially altered, it is somewhat remarkable that the tension of the products in relation to the gravimetric density is not nearly so much affected as might be expected from the considerable...
Page 110 - The work so done is compared with that of exploding gunpowder, and the conclusion finally reached is that " the destructive energy of one cubic foot of water, at a temperature which produces the pressure of 60 Ibs. to the square inch, is equal to that of one pound of gunpowder.
Page 234 - The variations in the composition of the products of explosion furnished in close chambers by one and the same powder, under different conditions as regards pressure, and by two powders of similar composition under the same conditions as regards pressure, are so considerable, that no value whatever can be attached to any attempt to give a general chemical expression to the metamorphosis of a gunpowder of normal composition (p.