Artropodos plaga y enfermedades que afectan el cultivo de la soya [Glycine max L. (Merr.)] en Puerto Rico: Monitoreo e identificacion
During 2006 and 2007, experimental plots located in Adjuntas, Juana Diaz and Isabela, Puerto Rico were monitored for the identification of pests and prevalence of diseases on soybean, Glycine max. In the three locations 16 species of arthropods representing 13 different genera were identified. In the Coleopteran order the American beetle, Systena basalis, was the most abundant species in Adjuntas, and soybean was identified as a potential host. The green beetle, Diabrotica graminea, was the other species identified in Adjuntas and Juana Diaz. The bean beetle, Cerotoma ruficornis, was identified at all locations. The species identified in the Lepidoptera order were: Omiodes indicata, Spodoptera ornitogalli and Spodoptera sp. In Adjuntas, Spodoptera ornitogalli, was occasionally found. Common species in the Thysanoptera order were: Thrips palmi and Frankliniella schultzei. However, in Juana Diaz, the exotic species identified were: Caliothrips phaseoli and Frankliniella gossipyana . The whitefly, Bemisia sp., and soybean lace bug, Nezara viridula, were the species of the Hemiptera order identified at the three locations. In general, the damage caused by the arthropods species was low with the exception of Bemisia sp and Spodoptera sp which are important as Carlavirus vector and defoliator, respectively. Three different field trapping methods for arthropods were evaluated. Direct observation was the best technique for the coleopteran species, compared with the sweep net and groundcloth techniques. The following diseases were identified on soybean: Sclerotium rolfsii, Cercospora sojina, Peronospora manshurica, Xanthomonas campestris pv. glycines and Carlavirus. The carlavirus, which showed the highest incidence in Juana Diaz, is a new disease in Puerto Rico. It has been identified in other subtropical and tropical countries.
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