As If God Existed: Religion and Liberty in the History of Italy

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Princeton University Press, Sep 9, 2012 - History - 352 pages

Religion and liberty are often thought to be mutual enemies: if religion has a natural ally, it is authoritarianism--not republicanism or democracy. But in this book, Maurizio Viroli, a leading historian of republican political thought, challenges this conventional wisdom. He argues that political emancipation and the defense of political liberty have always required the self-sacrifice of people with religious sentiments and a religious devotion to liberty. This is particularly the case when liberty is threatened by authoritarianism: the staunchest defenders of liberty are those who feel a deeply religious commitment to it.


Viroli makes his case by reconstructing, for the first time, the history of the Italian "religion of liberty," covering its entire span but focusing on three key examples of political emancipation: the free republics of the late Middle Ages, the Risorgimento of the nineteenth century, and the antifascist Resistenza of the twentieth century. In each example, Viroli shows, a religious spirit that regarded moral and political liberty as the highest goods of human life was fundamental to establishing and preserving liberty. He also shows that when this religious sentiment has been corrupted or suffocated, Italians have lost their liberty.


This book makes a powerful and provocative contribution to today's debates about the compatibility of religion and republicanism.

 

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Contents

Introduction 1
1
A REPUblICAn ChRIstIAnIty
13
Republics Protected by God 15
15
Images of the Civil Religion 21
21
Republican and Monarchical Religion
29
A Religion That Instills Virtue
33
Sacred Laws and Sacred Republics
37
Republican Religion and Religious Reform
45
After the Revolution
103
The New Alliance
115
Literature and Hymns of the Religion of Liberty
126
Apostles and Martyrs
140
Regrets and the Quest for New Faiths
154
Two Clashing Religions
175
The Religion of Liberty
214
A Religion That Instills Hope
226

A Religion to Live Free
52
Within the Soul
62
The Twilight of Republican Religion
72
RElIGIoUs REbIRth And nAtIonAl EMAnCIPAtIon
87
Without God
89
Only a God Can Expel a God
259
Notes
283
Index
329
Copyright

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About the author (2012)

Maurizio Viroli is professor of politics at Princeton University and professor of political communication at the University of Italian Switzerland in Lugano. His many books include Niccolò's Smile: A Biography of Machiavelli, Machiavelli's God (Princeton), and The Liberty of Servants: Berlusconi's Italy (Princeton).

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