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THE IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY IN TRANSITION by J
direct reduction by J G Sibakin and M J Fraser
BLAST FURNACE TECHNOLOGY by H U ROSS
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addition alloy austenite bainite billet blast furnace blast temperature carbide carbon content carbon monoxide casting machine casting speed cementite chamber charge coal Coke Oven coke rate combustion concentration consumable electrode continuous casting cooling cracks crucible curves decrease deoxidation desulphurization diagram diffusion direct reduction processes dislocations dolomite electron equilibrium eutectic eutectoid evaporation ferrite ferrous fuel gases grain boundary graphite heat removal hematite hot metal hydrogen inches increase induction melting ingot injection interface iron oxide Iron Steel Inst layer lime liquid steel lower magnetite manganese martensite material mould nitrogen nucleation obtained open hearth operation over-all oxygen content particles pearlite pellets phase pre-heated precipitation pro-eutectoid Proc production rate Raw Mater reaction refractory scrap shown in Fig shows silica silicon sinter slag solid solidification spray zone steelmaking strand sulphur surface technique thermal top pressure Trans tundish tuyeres unit vacuum treatment vessel Wiistite withdrawal rolls