Atlas of Craniofacial Trauma
This reference presents the indications, technical considerations, modifications and pitfalls of craniomaxillofacial surgery. The authors discuss common surgical procedures, and modifications are noted for different age groups and complicated states of injury.
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CORONOID FRACTURES SECTION VII PARASYMPHYSEAL FRACTURES
Froctures or Pharyngeal Intubation 3 General Considerations
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28-gauge wire acrylic ALTERNATIVE TECHNIQUE alveolar alveolus and/or anesthesia antibiotics applied appropriate arch bars artery avoided bleeding bone grafts buttress cartilage cerebrospinal fluid chromic sutures comminuted COMPLICATIONS compression condylar condyle deformity dental dentition denture described in Chapter displaced dissection edentulous elevated enophthalmos epinephrine evaluated exposure facial nerve flap forceps FRACTURE Continued fragments frontal process healing incision infection inferior orbital inferiorly infraciliary infraorbital infraorbital nerve injury intermaxillary fixation interosseous wires intraoral intubation Ivy loops lacrimal lateral lidocaine malunion mandible mandibular maxilla maxillary fracture medial canthal ligament medial wall method molar mucosa muscle nasal bones Nonunion nose obtained occur onlay orbital rim osteotomy packing palate periosteum pins PITFALLS placed plate fixation position posterior postoperative procedure Prophylactic antibiotics radiographs reduction and fixation removed repair rigid plate screws segment septum sinus sinuses skin soft tissues splint stability surgeon surgery sutures teeth tion tooth TOOTH INJURY tracheostomy treated tube usually zygomatic zygomatic arch