Oxford University Press, 1994 - Science - 580 pages
This graduate-level meteorology text and reference provides a scientifically rigorous description of the many types of convective circulations in the Earth's atmosphere. These range from small-scale, convectively driven turbulences in the boundary layer to precipitating systems covering many thousands of square kilometers. The text introduces the principal techniques used in understanding and predicting convective motion: theory, field experiment, and numerical modelling. Part I explores dry convection, including turbulent plumes and thermals from isolated buoyancy sources, Raleigh-Benard convection, and turbulent convection in the planetary boundary layer. Emphasis is placed on applying theoretical understanding and lessons from experiments. Part II offers a complete treatment of the thermodynamics of moist and cloudy air, including fundamental laws, conserved quantities, graphical techniques, and stability. Part III explores the characteristics of individual convective clouds, thunderstorms, squall lines, mesoscale convective systems, and slantwise convection. Part IV studies the ensemble effects of convective clouds, including stratocumulus at trade cumulus boundary layers and the representation of convective clouds in numerical models. Each chapter is followed by a set of exercises.
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Convection from local sources
the RayleighBenard problem
Stratocumulus and tradecumulus boundary
Deep convective regimes
Interaction of convection with largescale flows
Cumulus representation in numerical models
Water and thermodynamic variables
adiabatic altitude approximation assumed atmosphere average base becomes boundary layer buoyancy CAPE Chapter cloud compared conserved considered constant convection cooling cumulus defined density dependence described determined difference direction displacement distribution dynamics effects energy entrainment entropy environment equations equilibrium example fall Figure flow fluid flux function given gives gradient heat horizontal important increases initial instability integrated inversion large-scale liquid mass mass flux mean millibars mixing mixing ratio moist momentum motion negative neutral Note observations occur parcel plume positive precipitation pressure processes profiles quantities radiative radiative cooling Rayleigh relation represents respectively result saturation scale scheme shear shown shows simulations solution sounding specific squall lines stability storm subcloud surface temperature thermodynamic tropical turbulence updraft usually variables velocity vertical virtual volume water vapor wind