Atomic nuclei and their particles
This account reviews current knowledge about the physics of nuclear structure, including the relevance of recent discoveries to cosmology. The latest advances in particle accelerator and detector technology are noted, and the description of nuclear reactions is expanded from the firstedition. Mathematical material is reserved for special appendices in order to facilitate a rapid grasp of the material. This book is an ideal text for introductory courses in nuclear physics.
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ATOMS ELECTRONS AND PHOTONS
NUCLEAR PHYSICS BEFORE THE NUCLEUS
5 THE NUCLEUS REVEALED BY ALPHA PARTICLES
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absorption accelerator alpha emission alpha particles angle angular momentum antiparticles approximately atomic masses baryons beam beta particles binding energy centre-of-mass charged particle charmed collisions conservation laws constant corresponding cosmic rays Coulomb cross-section decay deduced density detectors deuteron discovery electric charge electric field electromagnetic interaction electrons emitted excited exp Bb experiments field quantum fission gamma rays hadrons hence hydrogen hypercharge hyperons incident particle ionization ions isospin isotopes kaons kinetic energy leptons lifetimes linear momentum magic numbers magnetic field mass number mean lifetimes measured mesons MeV alpha muon negative neutrino nuclear reaction nuclei nucleons observed pair parameter parity physics pions positron produced proton proton and neutron quarks radiation radioactive radius range relation relativistic resonances rest mass Rutherford scattering shown in Fig spin stable symmetry target theory thorium track uranium velocity wave equation wavefunction wavelength weak interaction yields Yukawa‘s zero