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The Positive Constituents of Atoms
The Thomson Atom and the Discovery of the Nucleus
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a-particles a-ray absorption angle atomic weight average azimuthal quantum band beam cathode rays centimeter charge circular orbit classical constant crystal curve deflection density distribution elec electron orbits elements ellipse emission emitted energy level equation evaluate excitation field H force free electrons free path frequency gases give given heat Hence impact ionization ionization potential J. J. Thomson kinetic energy kinetic theory Larmor precession lattice light lines magnetic field mass measured metal molecular molecules momentum motion negative neutrons normal nuclear nucleus number of electrons observed octet particles phase wave Phys plane polar positive ions potential energy protons quantization quantum number quantum theory radiation radius reaction result rotation Rydberg constant scattering seen shell shown in Fig Sommerfeld space spectra spin surface temperature tion transitions trons tube valence electrons vector velocity vibrational volts wave mechanics wave number wavelength x-rays Zeeman effect zero