## Atoms and quantaThis is a textbook for first year undergraduate students in physics, chemistry, and other physical sciences. It is concerned with the structure of the atom and the information gained from atomic behavior about the nature of matter, light, and electricity. Deficiencies in classical theory and some fundamental problems involved in the description of atomic and sub-atomic systems are examined. An introduction to quantum theory with some key examples is also provided. The emphasis throughout is on concepts. References to experiments are made to test and support theories and introduce new information. Mathematical complexity has been avoided as much as possible, and problems of both a formal analytical and numerical kind are |

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### Contents

Photons | 13 |

Electrons and Ions | 43 |

Models of the A torn | 67 |

Copyright | |

5 other sections not shown

### Common terms and phrases

3-decay absorption accelerated angle angular frequency angular momentum atomic number beam behaviour binding energy cathode centre of mass Chapter charged particles chemical classical collision Compton scattering constant Coulomb cross-section crystal decay deflection density determined diffraction direction distance electric and magnetic electric field electromagnetic radiation emission emitted equation excited experimental experiments Figure fission formula function given in Table gives helium Hence hydrogen incident integer intensity interaction ionization energy isotopes kinetic energy lines magnetic field magnitude mass number maximum measured metal molecules neutrons nucleons nucleus number of electrons observed orbit pair production photoelectric effect photon photon energy physics plane planetary model plate positive ions possible predicted produced projectile properties quantization quantum number quantum theory radioactive radioactive decay radius region rest mass result shell shown in Fig sodium Solution spectra spectrum spin synchrotron target transitions unit velocity wavefunctions wavelength X-ray zero