World Bank Publications, 2000 - Business & Economics - 335 pages
At the start of a new century, poverty remains a global problem of huge proportions. Of the world's 6 billion people, 2.8 billion live on less than $2 a day and 1.2 billion on less than $1 a day. Eight out of 100 infants do not live to see their 5th birthday. Nine of 100 boys and 14 of 100 girls who reach school age do not attend school. Poverty is also evident in poor people's lack of political power and voice and in their vulnerability to ill health, economic dislocation, personal violence and natural disasters. The scourge of HIV/AIDS, the frequency and brutality of civil conflicts, and rising disparities between rich countries and the developing world have increased the sense of deprivation and injustice for many. 'World Development Report 2000/2001: Attacking Poverty' (which follows 2 other 'World Development Reports' on poverty, in 1980 and 1990) argues that major reductions in all these dimensions of poverty are indeed possible that the interaction of markets, state institutions, and civil societies can harness the forces of economic integration and technological change to serve the interests of poor people and increase their share of society's prosperity. Actions are needed in 3 complementary areas: promoting economic opportunities for poor people through equitable growth, better access to markets, and expanded assets; facilitating empowerment by making state institutions more responsive to poor people and removing social barriers that exclude women, ethnic and racial groups, and the socially disadvantaged; and enhancing security by preventing and managing economywide shocks and providing mechanisms to reduce the sources of vulnerability that poor people face. But actions by countries and communities will not be enough. Global actions need to complement national and local initiatives to achieve maximum benefit for poor people throughout the world. A copublication of the World Bank and Oxford University Press.
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action Africa agricultural areas Asia assets assistance associated average Bangladesh benefits capital Central chapter China consumption costs debt developing countries disasters Discussion distribution donors East Economic effective ensure estimates Evidence example figure funds gender global groups growth households human impact important improve income increase India indicators inequality institutions International investment Italy Journal labor land less living measures ment middle natural Note official opportunities organizations participation percent Policy political poor population poverty reduction Press problems programs projects reduce reforms Region Report Republic Research response result risk rural sector share shocks social Source South spending strategy surveys Table tion trade United University urban vulnerability Washington women World Bank World Development
Page 322 - The total fertility rate represents the number of children that would be born to a woman if she were to live to the end of her childbearing years and bear children at each age in accordance with prevailing age-specific fertility rates.
Page 323 - Gross domestic product (GDP) at purchaser prices is the sum of the gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products.
Page 326 - ... all transfers that are the counterpart of real resources or financial claims provided to or by the rest of the world without a quid pro quo, such as donations and grants; and all changes in residents' claims on, and liabilities to, nonresidents that arise from economic transactions.
Page 320 - Poverty gap is the mean shortfall from the poverty line (counting the nonpoor as having zero shortfall), expressed as a percentage of the poverty line. This measure reflects the depth of poverty as well as its incidence.
Page 331 - ... among individuals or households within an economy deviates from a perfectly equal distribution. A Lorenz curve plots the cumulative percentages of total income received against the cumulative number of recipients, starting with the poorest individual or household. The Gini index measures the area between the Lorenz curve and a hypothetical line of absolute equality, expressed as a percentage of the maximum area under the line.
Page 49 - I think I may fairly make two postulata. First, That food is necessary to the existence of man. Secondly, That the passion between the sexes is necessary, and will remain nearly in its present state.
Page xiv - GATT General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade GDP gross domestic product GN'P gross national product...
Page 321 - In rural areas the definition implies that members of the household do not have to spend a disproportionate part of the day fetching water.