Attention in Early Development: Themes and Variations

Front Cover
Oxford University Press, May 3, 2001 - Psychology
1. Introduction. 2. Constructs and Measures. 3. Looking and Visual Attention: Overview and Developmental Framework. 4. Scanning, Searching, and Shifting Attention. 5. Development of Selectivity. 6. Development of Attention as a State. 7. Focused Visual Attention and Resistance to Distraction. 8. Increasing Independence in the Control of Attention. 9. Attention in Learning and Performance. 10. Individual Differences in Attention. 11. Early Manifestations of Attention Deficits. 12. Individuality and Development. 13. Recapitulation. References. Author Index. Subject Index
 

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Contents

Introduction
3
DEVELOPMENT OF ATTENTION
5
INDIVIDUALITY AND DEVELOPMENT
8
ORGANIZATION OF THE BOOK
10
Constructs and Measures
12
ATTENTION AS SELECTIVITY
13
ATTENTION AS STATE
17
Behavioral Measures
18
Common Mechanisms
122
Developmental Changes in Mechanisms
125
CAN DISTRACTORS HELP PERFORMANCE?
127
SUMMARY
131
Increasing Independence in the Control of Attention
133
ADULT AS REGULATOR
134
Shared Attention to Objects
137
Cultural Influences
139

Physiological Measures
20
ATTENTION AS EXECUTIVE CONTROL
26
Voluntary Attention
29
Limited Capacity
30
Automatic versus Controlled Processes
31
SUMMARY
32
Looking and Visual Attention Overview and Developmental Framework
34
THE TRANSITION AT 2 TO 3 MONTHS
35
Social Implications of the 2 to 3Month Shift
37
Processes Underlying the Transition at 2 to 3 Months
39
LOOKING AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE FIRST ATTENTION SYSTEM
40
THE TRANSITION AT 9 TO 12 MONTHS
42
Changes in Other Domains
45
CONSOLIDATION OF THE SECOND ATTENTION SYSTEM AND THE TRANSITION AT 18 MONTHS
48
The 18month Transition
50
Processes Underlying the 18Month Transition
51
THE PRESCHOOL YEARS AND INCREASING CONTROL OF ATTENTION
52
Processes Underlying Development from 2 to 5 Years
53
SUMMARY
55
Scanning Searching and Shifting Attention
57
Scanning
58
Shifting Attention Between Events
63
Visual Search and Expectation
67
NONOBSERVABLE SHIFTS OF ATTENTION
72
SUMMARY
74
Development of Selectivity
75
A Shift from Quantitative to More Qualitative Bases for Selection
76
Neural Underpinnings for the Shift in Selectivity at 2 to 3 Months
77
SELECTION BASED ON PERCEPTUAL EXPERIENCE
79
Selection of Novel Objects and Events
80
Selection of Novel Locations
81
SELECTION BASED ON MOTIVATIONAL RELEVANCE
83
Social and Emotional Consequences of People
84
Selection Based on What is Relevant to New Motor Skills
85
SELECTING WHAT OTHERS SELECT
89
SUMMARY
91
Development of Attention as a State
93
Initiation
95
Engagement
98
Disengagement and Termination of Attention
101
FACTORS THAT SUSTAIN ENGAGEMENT
103
Cognitive Factors
105
MUTUAL INFLUENCES OF ATTENTION AND OTHER STATES
107
SUMMARY
109
Focused Visual Attention and Resistance to Distraction
110
FRAMEWORK FOR DEVELOPMENT
112
OrientingInvestigative System
114
System of Higher Level Control
116
Development of Two Systems of Attention
117
IMPLICATIONS FOR DISTRACTIBILITY
118
Conceptual Issues in the Study of Distractibility
121
THE SHIFT FROM OTHERREGULATION TO SELFREGULATION
142
The Role of Changing Motivations
145
Volitional Skills
146
SUMMARY
154
Attention in Learning and Performance
155
DOES ATTENTION ENHANCE LEARNING AND PERFORMANCE?
156
Behavioral Evidence for the Role of Focused Attention
158
Physiological Differentiation
161
SPECIFIC TYPES OF LEARNING
162
Sequence Learning
166
Observational Learning
167
ATTENTION AND PRACTICE OF NEW SKILLS
169
Attention to Emerging Cognitive Skills
170
Effort Involved in Emerging Use of Strategies
171
SUMMARY
172
Individual Differences in Attention
174
INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES IN ASPECTS OF ATTENTION
176
Physiological Reactivity
178
Focused Attention
184
RELATED DIMENSIONS OF INDIVIDUALITY
187
Motor Activity
188
Higher Level Control of Impulses
192
Attention and Emotionality
195
SUMMARY
197
Early Manifestations of Attention Deficits
199
Excess Motor Activity and Attention
200
Relating Disorders to Different Processes
201
POSSIBLE PRECURSORS OF ATTENTION DEFICITS WITH HYPERACTIVITY
202
Developmental Patterns
205
PRECURSORS TO ATTENTION DEFICITS WITHOUT HYPERACTIVITY
207
Infants with Regulatory Disorders
211
Impaired Attention in Autistic Children in Social Situations
212
UNDERLYING DEVIATIONS IN EARLY ATTENTION DEFICITS
215
A Temperament Approach to Attention Deficits
216
Hypotheses About Optimal Arousal Level
217
Imbalances of Activation and Inhibition
219
SUMMARY
221
Individuality and Development
223
Environment as a Contributor
225
An Interactionist Approach to Individual Differences
226
THE DEVELOPMENT OF ATTENTION DEFICITS
231
Social Contributions to Developmental Patterns
232
INDIVIDUAL PROFILES OF DEVELOPMENT
235
SUMMARY
239
Recapitulation
241
INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES
242
THE LARGER CONTEXT
243
References
245
Author Index
281
Subject Index
287
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Page 245 - Anderson, DR, & Levin, SR (1976). Young children's attention to "Sesame Street." Child Development, 47, 806-811. Anderson, DR, & Lorch, EP (1983). Looking at television: Action or reaction? In J. Bryant & DR Anderson (Eds.), Children's understanding of television: Research on attention and comprehension (pp.
Page 245 - Ahadi, SA, Rothbart, MK, & Ye, R. (1993). Children's temperament in the US and China: Similarities and differences.

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