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Analysis and synthesis of speech using a broadband spectral
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acoustic allophones amplitude articulatory auditory analysis auditory system average chirp Chistovich consonantal context correlation corresponding cues curves discrimination effect energy errors experiments Fant Fig.l Figure filters Fj and F2 formant frequencies formant transitions fricative fricative consonant function fundamental frequency harmonic identification indicate initial intensity interval intonation JASA Kozhevnikov Leningrad linguistic listeners masking mean measured msec nasal normal normalisation number of syllables onset pair parameters patterns pause peak perceived phoneme phoneme boundaries pitch contour place of articulation Plomp plosives presented processing psychoacoustic rapid spectrum change recognition resonant consonants response Russian second formant second vowel segment durations sentence sequence shows signal speaker spectral spectrograms speech perception speech sounds speech synthesis stimuli stop consonants stressed syllable stressed vowel subjects syllable nucleus syntagm synthetic vowels temporal timbre tone unstressed utterance values variable variance vocal tract Voice voiceless vowel duration words