Australia and the Birth of the International Bill of Human Rights, 1946-1966
Federation Press, 2005 - 306 pagini
Australia and the Birth of the International Bill of Human Rights provides the first in depth examination of Australia's first reactions to 'international human rights' during the negotiations for the International Bill of Rights: the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the ICCPR and ICESCR. It follows Australian policy from 1946, the first year in which the United Nations began discussing a Bill of Rights until 1966 when the twin Covenants were finalized. The book looks at what successive Australian Governments understood by 'human rights' and how they responded to discussion of sensitive domestic topics such as: immigration policies self-determination for inhabitants of trust territories equal pay for men and women and balancing human rights and national security. As well as considering Australian policies towards substantive rights, the book looks at Australian policies towards international schemes for protecting rights including early proposals for an International Court of Human Rights and its later support for more modest, technical expertise based assistance for States, debates often taking place against the background of highly politicised issues such as the Cold War and the fight against apartheid. In looking at this 20 year period, the book demonstrates the way in which Australian policy changed substantially over time: as between Labor and Liberal administrations, between Ministers and bureaucrats and as between decision makers with markedly distinct visions of the ideal relationship between citizens and a State, and the individual State and the international community. In highlighting the diversity of views about human rights, this book thus challenges the notion that Australia has historically supported a universally understood set of human rights norms and underlines the number of variables which may be affecting ongoing implementation of human rights standards.
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Implementation in a federal state
Colonial application clause
From international adjudication
From individual to statecentric views
Responses to the Commission on Human Rights receipt
Alte ediții - Afișați-le pe toate
Aboriginal accepted accordance action adopted application approach Article Assembly Australian delegation Australian mission Australian representative brief Cablegram Chapter civil and political clause Commission on Human Committee Commonwealth concerning considered constitutional continued countries Court cultural debate Department of External determination directed discussed domestic draft economic and social equal Evatt existing expressed External Affairs federal freedom given groups human rights ICCPR immigration implementation included individual instance interests interpretation issue Item language legislation limited matter means Memorandum Menzies Minister minorities nature negotiations noted objections obligations particular Party period persons policies political rights present Covenant Press principle proposal protection question quoted reference regarded relation remained Report reservations resolution respect response Secretary seen self-determination Session social rights Spender stance statement territories Third Committee treaty UDHR United Nations University vote Whitlam