## Automata, Formal Languages and Algebraic Systems: Proceedings of AFLAS 2008, Kyoto, Japan, 20-22 September 2008This volume consists of papers selected from the presentations at the workshop and includes mainly recent developments in the fields of formal languages, automata theory and algebraic systems related to the theoretical computer science and informatics. It covers the areas such as automata and grammars, languages and codes, combinatorics on words, cryptosystems, logics and trees, Grobner bases, minimal clones, zero-divisor graphs, fine convergence of functions, and others. |

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### Contents

Solidifyable Minimal Clone of Partial Operation S Busaman and K Denecke | 1 |

A Novel Cryptosystem Based on Finite Automata Without Output P Domosi | 23 |

Linear Languages of Finite and In nite Words Z Esik M Ito and W Kuich | 33 |

Extended Temporal Logics on Finite Words Z Esik and Sz Iv an | 47 |

The Number of Distinct 4Cycles and 2Matchings of Some ZeroDivisor Graphs M Kanemitsu | 63 |

On Normal Form Grammars and Their Size A Kelemenov a L Ciencialov a and L Cienciala | 71 |

Grobner Bases on Algebras Based on WellOrdered Semigroups Y Kobayashi | 85 |

Concurrent Finite Automata and Related Language Classes M Kudlek and G Zetzsche | 103 |

Finitely Expandable Deep PDAs P Leupold and A Meduna | 113 |

The Primitivity Distance of Words G Lischke | 125 |

Fine Convergence of Functions and Its E ectivization T Mori M Yasugi and Y Tsujii | 139 |

On a Hierarchy of Permutation Languages B Nagy | 163 |

Derivation Trees for ContextSensitive Grammars B Nagy | 179 |

On Proper Languages and Transformations of Lexicalized Types of Automata F Otto | 201 |

Initial Literal Shu es of Uniform Codes G Tanaka and Y Kunimochi | 223 |

### Common terms and phrases

automaton C1 o C2 ciphertext completely idempotent computable sequence Computer Science context context-free grammars context-free language context-sensitive grammars context-sensitive languages Conway semiring-semimodule pair Corollary deep PDAs deﬁned Deﬁnition denote derivation graphs derivation step derivation tree deterministic distinct 4-cycles DTPDA dyadic intervals dyadic rationals elements equivalent exists ﬁnal ﬁnite ﬁrst Formal Languages G C1 G dom(t grammar G Gröbner bases homomorphism idempotent inﬁnite input LC(M left-most derivation Lemma length lexicalized locally uniformly Lpermn matrix grammars monoid morphism n-ary node labeled nonempty nonterminals normal form partial algebra partial clone permutation grammar permutation languages permutation rules Petri Petri net plaintext position restricted grammars positive integers Proof proper languages Proposition pushdown automata ranked alphabet regular languages Rel(M respect Semantics semigroup semiring sentential form sequence of dyadic strong identity strongly solidifyable subset terminal Theorem 3.1 transition tree automaton tree languages type’s