Automated Nanohandling by Microrobots

Front Cover
Sergej Fatikow
Springer Science & Business Media, Oct 25, 2007 - Technology & Engineering - 346 pages
0 Reviews
“What I want to talk about is the problem of manipulating and controlling things on a small scale” stated Richard P. Feynman at the beginning of his visionary talk “There ́s Plenty of Room at the Bottom”, given on December 29th 1959 at the annual meeting of the American Physical Society at the California Institute of Technology. Today, almost half a century after this first insight into unlimited opportunities on the nanoscale level, we still want – and have to – talk about the same issue. The problem identified by Feynmann turned out to be a very difficult one due to a lack of understanding of the underlying phenomena in the nanoworld and a lack of suitable nanohandling methods. This book addresses the second issue and tries to contribute to the tremendous effort of the research community in seeking proper solutions in this field. Automated robot-based nanomanipulation is one of the key challenges of microsystem technology and nanotechnolgy, which has recently been addressed by a rising number of R&D groups and companies all over the world. Controlled, reproducible assembly processes on the nanoscale will enable high-throughput manufacturing of revolutionary products and open up new application fields. The ultimate goal of these research activities is the development of automated nanomanipulation processes to build a bridge between existing precise handling strategies for micro- and nanoscale objects and aspired high-throughput fabrication of micro- and nanosystems.
 

What people are saying - Write a review

We haven't found any reviews in the usual places.

Selected pages

Contents

Trends in Nanohandling
1
12 Trends in Nanohandling
3
122 SPM as a Nanohandling Robot
5
13 Automated Microrobotbased Nanohandling
8
14 Structure of the Book
11
15 References
13
Robotbased Automated Nanohandling
23
22 Vision Sensors for Nanohandling Automation
25
6332 Microrobots Outside the Scanning Electron Microscope
188
6333 Microrobots Inside the Scanning Electron Microscope
192
6334 Mobile Microrobots
193
634 AFMbased Nanohandling Systems
195
6342 AFMs Combined with Haptic Devices and Virtual Reality
196
64 Conclusions
197
Characterization and Handling of Carbon Nanotubes
203
72 Basics of Carbon Nanotubes
204

221 Comparison of Vision Sensors for Nanohandling Automation
26
222 Zoom Steps and Finding of Objects
29
223 SEMrelated Issues
31
2232 Noise
33
Problems and Challenges
34
232 Contact Detection
36
24 General Description of Assembly Processes
37
241 Description of the Single Tasks
38
242 General Flowchart of Handling Processes
40
252 Improving Throughput
41
26 Automated Microrobotbased Nanohandling Station
42
261 AMNS Components
43
2612 Actuators
44
2613 Mobile Microrobots
45
2614 Sensors
46
2615 Control Architecture
47
2616 User Interface
48
Handling of TEM Lamellae
49
27 Conclusions
52
28 References
54
Learning Controller for Microrobots
57
312 Selforganizing Map as Inverse Model Controller
58
32 Closedloop Pose Control
62
322 Trajectory Controller
63
323 Motion Controller
64
324 Actuator Controller
65
33 The SOLIM Approach
66
332 Mapping
68
3321 Interpolation
69
3322 Influence Limits
72
3323 Extrapolation
74
333 Learning
76
3332 Selforganization in Output Space
78
3333 Selforganization in Input Space
82
334 Conclusions
83
342 Learning
85
3422 Inverse Kinematics
87
35 SOLIM as Actuator Controller
89
352 Manual Training
91
353 Automatic Training
93
36 Conclusions
96
362 Outlook
97
3623 Predefined Network Size
98
37 References
99
Realtime Object Tracking Inside an SEM
103
42 The SEM as Sensor
104
43 Integration of the SEM
106
44 Crosscorrelationbased Tracking
107
45 Regionbased Object Tracking
111
452 Fast Implementation
114
453 Minimization
116
454 Evaluation and Results
119
4542 Robustness Against Additive Noise
120
4543 Robustness Against Clutter
121
4544 Robustness Against Graylevel Fluctuations
123
46 Conclusions
124
462 Outlook
126
3D Imaging System for SEM
129
52 Basic Concepts
130
5211 The Cyclopean View
131
5213 Vergence and Version
132
5214 Vergence System
134
522 Principle of Stereoscopic Image Approaches in the SEM
135
5222 Generation of Stereoscopic Images in the SEM
136
5223 Influences on the Disparity Space
138
523 Mathematical Basics
139
5233 Gabor Function
141
524 Biological Vision Systems
143
5242 Depth Perception in Biological Vision Systems
144
53 Systems for Depth Detection in the SEM
145
531 Nonstereoscopic Image Approaches
146
532 Stereoscopic Image Approaches
147
54 3D Imaging System for Nanohandling in an SEM
148
542 Image Acquisition and Beam Control
149
543 The 3D Module
151
5431 Stereo System
152
5432 Vergence System
156
55 Application of the 3D Imaging System
158
552 Application for the Handling of CNTs
160
553 Application for the Handling of Crystals
161
562 Outlook
163
Force Feedback for Nanohandling
166
62 Fundamentals of MicroNano Force Measurement
168
622 Types of Forces in Robotics
170
6222 Contact Forces
172
624 Requirements on Force Feedback for Nanohandling
174
625 Specific Requirements of Force Feedback for Microrobots
177
63 Stateoftheart
178
6312 Piezoelectric Micro Force Sensors
180
6314 Optical Methods for Micro Force Measurement
181
6315 Commercial Micro Force Sensors
183
633 Robotbased Nanohandling Systems with Force Feedback
184
6331 Industrial Microhandling Robots
185
722 Electronic Properties
205
723 Mechanical Properties
207
724 Fabrication Techniques
208
7242 Production by Laser Ablation
209
725 Applications
210
7251 Composites
211
7253 Electronics
212
73 Characterization of CNTs
213
7312 Spectroscopic Characterization Methods
214
7313 Diffractional Characterization Methods
215
74 Characterization and Handling of CNTs in an SEM
216
75 AMNS for CNT Handling
218
752 Gripping and Handling of CNTs
220
753 Mechanical Characterization of CNTs
221
76 Towards Automated Nanohandling of CNTs
224
762 Restrictions on Automated Handling Inside an SEM
225
763 Control System Architecture
226
764 First Implementation Steps
230
77 Conclusions
231
78 References
232
Characterization and Handling of Biological Cells
237
82 AFM Basics
239
Laser Beam Deflection
240
8222 Dynamic Mode
241
8223 Lateral Force Mode
242
823 Measurements of Different Characteristics
243
8232 Magnetic Force Measurements
245
8234 Molecular Recognition Force Measurements
246
824 Sample Preparation
247
826 Video Rate AFMs
248
83 Biological Background
249
8312 Electrical Characteristics
250
8313 Chemical Characteristics
251
833 Ion Channels
252
834 Intermolecular Binding Forces
253
84 AFM in Biology Stateoftheart
254
842 Physical Electrical and Chemical Properties
255
8422 Intermolecular Binding Forces
256
8424 Cell Pressure
257
843 Cooperation and Manipulation with an AFM
258
844 Additional Cantilever
259
852 Control System
260
853 Calculation of the Youngs Modulus
261
854 Experimental Results
262
86 Conclusions
263
87 References
264
Material Nanotesting
267
9112 Basic Concepts of Materials Mechanics
270
Nano Micro and Macroindentation
271
9116 Applications of the Sharp Instrumented Indentation
277
912 Spherical Indentation
279
9122 Analysis of LoadDepth Curves Using Spherical Indenters
280
9123 Applications of Spherical Instrumented Indentation
281
921 Experiments
282
9212 Description of the Experimental Setup
283
9213 The AFM Cantilever
285
9214 Description of the NMT Module
286
922 Calibrations
287
9222 Electrical Calibration
288
924 Discussion
289
93 Conclusions
292
94 References
293
Nanostructuring and Nanobonding by EBiD
295
1011 History of EBiD
297
1012 Applications of EBiD
298
102 Theory of Deposition Processes in the SEM
299
10212 General SEM Setup
301
10213 Secondary Electron Detector
302
1022 Interactions Between Electron Beam and Substrate
303
10222 Range of Secondary Electrons
305
10223 Results
309
1023 Modeling the EBiD Process
310
10232 Parameter Determination for the Rate Equation Model
312
10233 Influence of the SE
314
10234 Heat Transfer Calculations
315
103 Gas Injection Systems
316
1032 The Molecular Beam
317
104 Mobile GIS
322
1042 Position Control of the GIS
323
1043 Pressure Control
324
10433 Control of the Molecular Flux
325
10434 Pressure Dependence of the Deposition Rate
326
1044 Multimaterial Depositions
327
105 Process Monitoring and Control
329
1052 Closedloop Control of EBiD Deposits
330
10521 Growth of Pinlike Deposits and SEsignal
331
10522 Application for 2D Deposits
332
1053 Failure Detection
334
106 Mechanical Properties of EBiD Deposits
336
1072 Outlook
337
108 References
338
Index
341
Copyright

Other editions - View all

Common terms and phrases

Popular passages

Page v - December 29th 1959 at the annual meeting of the American Physical Society at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) was first published in the February 1960 issue of Cal tech's Engineering and Science, which owns the copyright.
Page v - What I want to talk about is the problem of manipulating and controlling things on a small scale. As soon as I mention this, people tell me about miniaturization, and how far it has progressed today. They tell me about electric motors that are the size of the nail on your small finger.

About the author (2007)

Prof. Dr. Sergej Fatikow is a full professor and Head of the Institute for Microrobotics and Control Engineering at the University of Oldenburg, Germany. His research interests include different aspects of micro- and nanorobotics, microactuators and microsensors, robot-based nanohandling automation, and neuro-fuzzy robot control.

Bibliographic information