Automatic Summarization

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Now Publishers Inc, 2011 - Computers - 146 pages
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Today's world is all about information, most of it online. The World Wide Web contains billions of documents and is growing at an exponential pace. Tools that provide timely access to, and digest of, various sources are necessary in order to alleviate the information overload people are facing. The need for such tools sparked interest in the development of automatic summarization systems. Such systems are designed to take a single article, a cluster of news articles, a broadcast news show, or an email thread as input, and produce a concise and fluent summary of the most important information. Recent years have seen the development of numerous summarization applications for news, email threads, lay and professional medical information, scientific articles, spontaneous dialogues, voicemail, broadcast news and video, and meeting recordings. These systems, imperfect as they are, have already been shown to help users and to enhance other automatic applications and interfaces. Automatic Summarization provides a comprehensive overview of research in summarization, including the more traditional efforts in sentence extraction as well as the most novel recent approaches for determining important content, for domain and genre specific summarization and for evaluation of summarization. It also discusses the challenges that remain open, in particular the need for language generation and deeper semantic understanding of language that would be necessary for future advances in the field.
 

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IJAMBR 1 (2013) 16-19 ISSN 2053-1818
Effect of chemical treatments on the microbial load of
fruits and vegetables
Nwachukwu E.* and Chukwu C. M.
Department of Microbiology, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Nigeria.
Article History ABSTRACT
Received 02 August, 2013
Received in revised form 28
August, 2013
Accepted 13 September, 2013
Key words:
Fruit,
Vegetable,
Microorganism,
Chemical treatment.
Full Length Research Article
Effect of chemical treatments on the microbial load of fruits and vegetables was
investigated. Fruits and vegetables purchased from street vendors were
analyzed to determine their microbial load. Bacteria load ranged from
1.3104
‒1.8106
cfu/g while fungi load ranged from 3.0104
‒5.2104
cfu/g. Carrots
had the highest bacterial and fungal load. Bacteria isolated included
Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Escherichia,
Salmonella and Klebsiella while fungi were Aspergillus, Rhizopus and
Saccharomyces with various percentage of occurrences. Staphylococcus was
the most frequently isolated bacteria genera, varying between 60 and 100% in all
cases. Treatment of fruits and vegetables with vinegar was found to significantly
reduce their respective microbial load when compared with other solvent. This
study revealed that fruits and vegetables were contaminated with different
bacteria and fungi genera and the microbial load can be reduced when properly
washed especially with vinegar.
2013 BluePen Journals Ltd. All rights reserved
INTRODUCTION
The importance of fruits (for example, apple, banana,
pineapple, paw-paw, oranges) and vegetables (for
example, lettuce, spinach, cabbage, cauliflower) to
human cannot be over emphasized as they are high in
fiber, vitamins, water, minerals, varying proportions of
sugar, proteins and various phytochemicals such as
flavonoid, saponin, tannin and anthocyanin (Gruda,
2005). Some phytochemicals are antibacterial, antifungal
and antioxidant. They are vital for health and wellbeing,
and as a result of this knowledge, consumption of fruits
and vegetables has increased significantly in many
countries (Kalia and Gupta, 2006). Hundreds of fruits and
vegetables are commercially valuable as human food. In
Nigeria, watermelon, pineapple, paw-paw and salad
vegetables are usually sliced and packaged in polyethene
bags and sold by street vendors. Consumption of
these sliced fruits have increased because they are
convenient, easily accessible, nutritious and especially
*Corresponding author. E-mail: drejik@yahoo.com.
cheaper than the whole fruits and vegetables (Halablab
et al., 2011). However, sliced fruits and vegetables are
widely exposed to microbial contamination (Nwachukwu
et al., 2008) through contact with the soil, dust, water, or
during handling like peeling, slicing or trimming. The
increase in the consumption of sliced fruits and
vegetables has been linked with a parallel increase in
food-borne illnesses (Bagde and Tumane, 2011; Batz et
al., 2012; Clark, 2012).
Among the groups of bacteria found in fruits and
vegetables are coliform (Zhao et al., 1997). However,
about two-third of the spoilage of these items is caused
by mould of the genera Penicillium, Aspergillus, Botrytis
and Rhizopus (Frazier and Westhoff, 1998). Microorganisms
capable of causing human illness such as
Aeromonas hydrophila, Citrobacter freundii, Enterobacter
cloacae and Klebsiella spp. have also been isolated in
lettuce and salad vegetables (Francis et al., 1999).
Contamination of fruits and vegetables takes place at all
stages of fruit processing if proper sanitary and hygiene
conditions are not maintained (Beuchat, 1995; De
Roever, 1998). Outbreaks of salmonellosis have also been associated with consumption of cut watermelon in
the United States (CDC, 2009).
Fruits and vegetables vendors generally do not follow
good hygienic practices. There is no adequate storage
conditions as fruits and vegetables are sold in trays,
wheel barrows or on tables by vendors. Vendors who do
not
 

Contents

Introduction
1
Determining Importance
17
Methods Using Semantics and Discourse
41
Generation for Summarization
51
Genre and Domain Specific Approaches
73
Intrinsic Evaluation
99
References
117
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