With the explosion in the quantity of on-line text and multimedia information in recent years, there has been a renewed interest in automatic summarization. This book provides a systematic introduction to the field, explaining basic definitions, the strategies used by human summarizers, and automatic methods that leverage linguistic and statistical knowledge to produce extracts and abstracts. Drawing from a wealth of research in artificial intelligence, natural language processing, and information retrieval, the book also includes detailed assessments of evaluation methods and new topics such as multi-document and multimedia summarization. Previous automatic summarization books have been either collections of specialized papers, or else authored books with only a chapter or two devoted to the field as a whole. This is the first textbook on the subject, developed based on teaching materials used in two one-semester courses. To further help the student reader, the book includes detailed case studies, accompanied by end-of-chapter reviews and an extensive glossary.Audience: students and researchers, as well as information technology managers, librarians, and anyone else interested in the subject.
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Effect of chemical treatments on the microbial load of fruits and vegetables
Nwachukwu E.* and Chukwu C. M.Department of Microbiology, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Nigeria.
Article History ABSTRACT
Received 02 August, 2013
Received in revised form 28
Accepted 13 September, 2013
Full Length Research Article
Effect of chemical treatments on the microbial load of fruits and vegetables was investigated. Fruits and vegetables purchased from street vendors were analyzed to determine their microbial load. Bacteria load ranged from 1.3×104‒1.8×106 cfu/g while fungi load ranged from 3.0×104‒5.2×104 cfu/g. Carrots had the highest bacterial and fungal load. Bacteria isolated included Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Escherichia, Salmonella and Klebsiella while fungi were Aspergillus, Rhizopus and Saccharomyces with various percentage of occurrences. Staphylococcus was the most frequently isolated bacteria genera, varying between 60 and 100% in all cases. Treatment of fruits and vegetables with vinegar was found to significantly reduce their respective microbial load when compared with other solvent. This study revealed that fruits and vegetables were contaminated with different bacteria and fungi genera and the microbial load can be reduced when properly washed especially with vinegar.
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The importance of fruits (for example, apple, banana, pineapple, paw-paw, oranges) and vegetables (for example, lettuce, spinach, cabbage, cauliflower) to human cannot be over emphasized as they are high in fiber, vitamins, water, minerals, varying proportions of sugar, proteins and various phytochemicals such as flavonoid, saponin, tannin and anthocyanin (Gruda, 2005). Some phytochemicals are antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant. They are vital for health and wellbeing, and as a result of this knowledge, consumption of fruits and vegetables has increased significantly in many countries (Kalia and Gupta, 2006). Hundreds of fruits and vegetables are commercially valuable as human food. In Nigeria, watermelon, pineapple, paw-paw and salad vegetables are usually sliced and packaged in poly-ethene bags and sold by street vendors. Consumption of these sliced fruits have increased because they are convenient, easily accessible, nutritious and especially
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com.
cheaper than the whole fruits and vegetables (Halablab et al., 2011). However, sliced fruits and vegetables are widely exposed to microbial contamination (Nwachukwu et al., 2008) through contact with the soil, dust, water, or during handling like peeling, slicing or trimming. The increase in the consumption of sliced fruits and vegetables has been linked with a parallel increase in food-borne illnesses (Bagde and Tumane, 2011; Batz et al., 2012; Clark, 2012).
Among the groups of bacteria found in fruits and vegetables are coliform (Zhao et al., 1997). However, about two-third of the spoilage of these items is caused by mould of the genera Penicillium, Aspergillus, Botrytis and Rhizopus (Frazier and Westhoff, 1998). Micro-organisms capable of causing human illness such as Aeromonas hydrophila, Citrobacter freundii, Enterobacter cloacae and Klebsiella spp. have also been isolated in lettuce and salad vegetables (Francis et al., 1999). Contamination of fruits and vegetables takes place at all stages of fruit processing if proper sanitary and hygiene conditions are not maintained (Beuchat, 1995; De Roever, 1998). Outbreaks of salmonellosis have also
been associated with consumption of cut watermelon in the United States (CDC, 2009).
Fruits and vegetables vendors generally do not follow good hygienic practices. There is no adequate storage conditions as fruits and vegetables are sold in trays, wheel barrows or on tables by vendors. Vendors who do not maintain personal hygiene can carry microorganism on their
2 Basic notions for summarization
3 Abstract architecture for summarization
4 Summarization approaches
5 Current applications
2 Abstraction from templates
3 Abstraction by term rewriting
4 Abstraction using event relations
5 Abstraction using a concept hierarchy
6 Synthesis for abstraction
2 The stages of abstracting
3 Abstracting strategies
4 Reading for abstracting
6 Psychological experiments
7 Structure of empirical abstracts
2 The Edmundsonian paradigm
3 Corpus based sentence extraction
4 Coherence of extracts
2 Shallow coherence smoothing
3 Full revision to improve informativeness
4 Text compaction
2 Text cohesion
3 Text coherence
2 Types of relationships across documents
3 MDS methods
3 Summarization of video
4 Summarization of diagrams
5 Automatic multimedia briefing generation
2 Intrinsic methods
3 Extrinsic methods