Automotive Safety Handbook

Front Cover
SAE International, 2007 - Automobiles - 293 pages
Table of Contents 1. Introduction ... 1 1.1 Reference ... 1 2. De?nitions ... 3 2.1 References ... 6 3. Driving Forces for Increased Vehicle Safety ... 7 3.1 References ... 9 4. Safety Legislation ... 11 4.1 Reference ... 16 5. Accident Data ... 17 5.1 References ... 23 6. Accident Avoidance ... 25 6.1 Human Factors ... 25 6.2 Comfort and Ergonomics ... 29 6.3 Acceleration and Braking ... 43 6.3.1 Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) ... 47 6.3.2 Brakes ... 48 6.3.3 Brake-by-Wire ... 52 6.3.4 Vehicle Dynamics ... 56 6.4 Information Systems ... 63 6.5 References ... 66 7. Biomechanics and Occupant Simulation ... 71 7.1 De? nition ... 71 7.2 Injury Tolerance Limits ... 73 7.3 External Injuries ... 74 7.4 Internal Injuries ... 76 7.4.1 Concussion ... 76 7.4.2 Spinal Injuries ... 79 7.4.3 Chest Injuries ... 80 7.5 Criteria in the Rule-Making Process ... 82 7.5.1 Head Protection ... 82 7.5.2 Chest Protection ... 83 7.5.3 Neck Injury ... 84 7.5.4 Performance Criteria for the Rule-Making Process ... 86 7.5.4.1 Chest ... 86 7.5.4.2 Pelvic ... 87 7.5.4.3 Leg and Knee ... 87 7.5.4.4 Pedestrian Protection ... 89 7.6 Test Devices ... 89 7.6.1 Body Part Test Devices ... 91 7.6.1.1 Head Impact ... 91 7.6.1.2 Torso Impact ... 91 7.6.1.3 Pedestrian Accident Simulation Tests ... 94 7.6.2 Three-Dimensional Dummies ... 94 7.6.2.1 Frontal/Rear Collision and Rollover ... 97 7.6.2.2 Lateral Impact ... 97 7.6.2.3 Child Dummies ... 99 7.6.2.4 Rear Impact Dummy (Bio-RID) ... 100 7.6.2.5 Bio? delity Dummy ... 102 7.6.3 Human and Dummy Modeling ... 102 7.7 References ... 106 8. Vehicle Body ... 109 8.1 General ... 109 8.2 Low-Speed Impact ... 117 8.3 Vehicle Body Test Without the Simulation of Car Occupants ... 119 8.3.1 Quasi-Static Test Requirement ... 119 8.3.1.1 Seat and Seat-Belt Anchorage Point Tests ... 119 8.3.1.2 Roof Strength ... 121 8.3.1.3 Vehicle Side Structure ... 122 8.4 References ... 125 9. Dynamic Vehicle Simulation Tests ... 127 9.1 Frontal Collisions ... 127 9.1.1 Pole Test ... 132 9.1.2 Frontal Car-to-Car Crash ... 133 9.1.3 Design Requirements of Frontal Collisions ... 136 9.2 Lateral Collisions ... 138 9.3 Rear-End Collisions ... 145 9.4 Rollover ... 145 9.5 References ... 149 10. Occupant Protection ... 151 10.1 Vehicle Compartment ... 151 10.2 Restraint Systems ... 151 10.2.1 Seat Belts ... 152 10.2.2 Airbags ... 160 10.2.2.1 Airbags for Frontal Impacts ... 160 10.2.2.2 Side Protection by Airbags ... 169 10.2.2.3 Additional Airbag Applications ... 170 10.2.2.4 Sensors for Restraint Systems ... 172 10.3 Child Restraints ... 179 10.4 References ... 182 11. Interrelationships Among Occupant, Restraint System, and Vehicle in Accidents ... 187 11.1 Frontal Impacts ... 187 11.1.1 The Unrestrained Occupant ... 187 11.1.2 The Three-Point Belt ...

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Contents

Introduction
1
Driving Forces for Increased Vehicle Safety
7
Accident Data
17
Copyright

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