Bacillus thuringiensis Biotechnology
Springer Science & Business Media, Mar 2, 2012 - Science - 392 pages
Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) has been used as a biopesticide in agriculture, forestry and mosquito control because of its advantages of specific toxicity against target insects, lack of polluting residues and safety to non-target organisms. The insecticidal properties of this bacterium are due to insecticidal proteins produced during sporulation. Despite these ecological benefits, the use of Bt biopesticides has lagged behind the synthetic chemicals. Genetic improvement of Bt natural strains, in particular Bt recombination, offers a promising means of improving efficacy and cost-effectiveness of Bt-based bioinsecticide products to develop new biotechnological applications. On the other hand, the different Bacillus species have important biotechnological applications; one of them is carried out by producing secondary metabolites, which are the study object of natural product chemistry. The amazing structural variability of these compounds has attracted the curiosity of chemists and the biological activities possessed by natural products have inspired the pharmaceutical industry to search for lead structures in microbial extracts. Screening of microbial extracts reveals the large structural diversity of natural compounds with broad biological activities, such as antimicrobial, antiviral, immunosuppressive, and antitumor activities that enable the bacterium to survive in its natural environment. These findings widen the target range of Bacillus spp., in special B. thuringiensis, besides insecticidal activity and help people to better understand its role in soil ecosystem.
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agricultural Appl Environ Microbiol Appl Microbiol Bacillus anthracis Bacillus cereus Bacillus cereus group Bacillus subtilis Bacillus thuringiensis Bacillus thuringiensis subsp bacteria bacteriocins Bacteriol bacterium Baum binding biopesticides Biotechnol biotechnology Bravo Bt cotton Bt crops Bt strains Bt toxins Bt transgenic crops cadherin cells characterization Chem chitinase chromosome cloned coleopteran coli conjugation constructed corn Crickmore cry genes Cry proteins Cry toxins Cry1Ac Cry3A Dean DH delta-endotoxin domain effects EFSA encoding engineered Entomol environmental expression FEMS Microbiol genetically modified genome host ICP genes insect insecticidal insecticidal activity insecticidal crystal proteins insecticidal proteins integration isolated israelensis kurstaki larvae lepidopteran Lereclus membrane midgut Mol Biol molecular mutant Natl Acad Sci non-target pathogens peptides pesticides pests phage plasmid potential production protein gene receptor recombinant resistance risk assessment Schnepf shuttle vectors soil species spores sporulation structure studies Tabashnik target tion toxicity toxin genes transduction transfer transformation transgenic plants transposon Zhang