Bacillus thuringiensis: an environmental biopesticide : theory and practice

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John Wiley & Sons, May 24, 1993 - Medical - 311 pages
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The challenge of bacillus thuringiensis. Historiacal overview: from discovery until 1980s. The 1980s: a decade of change. The future challenge. Diversity of bacillus thuringiensis toxins and genes. Diversity of B. thuringiensis strains and toxins. Localization and molecular organization of the toxin genes. The crystal protein genes and products. Regulation of crystal synthesis. Domain-function studies of bacillus thuringiensis crystal proteins: a genetic approach. Mode of action structural features of crystal proteins. Crystal protein mutants. Crystal protein hybrids. Transgenic bacteria, viruses, algae and other microorganisms as bacillus thuringiensis toxin delivery systems. Conventional B. thuringiensis products: do they nedd to be improved?. The use of transgenic microorganisms to improve insect host range. Improving foliar acticity and delivery. Improving aquatic activity and delivery. Improving soil activity and delivery. Issues in the development of transgenic microorganisms. The engineering of plants to express bacillus thuringiensis -endotoxins. Expression of -endotoxins in dicotyledons. Expression of -endotoxins in monocotyledons. Quantification of -endotoxins expression in planta. Enhancement of -endotoxin expression in planta. Endophyte expression of -endotoxin genes in plants. Control of lepidopteran pests with bacillus thuringiensis. Conventional and genetically engineered b. thuringiensis. Products. Microbial specificity of b. thuringiensis in lepidopteran pests. Entomological aspects of lepidopteran pest control with B. thuringiensis. Integration of B. thuringiensis in lepidopteran pest control strategies. Use of bacillus thuringiensis israelensis against mosquitoes and blackflies. Properties of B. thuringiensis israelensis. Factors influencing the efficacy of B. thuringiensis israelensis treatments. Organization of mosquito control programmes. Successful control programmes using B. thuringiesis israelensis. Future prospects for the use of B. thuringiensis israelensis. Control of coleopteran pests by bacillus thuringiensis. B. thuringiensis tenebrionis products and their registration. Characterization of B. thuringiensis tenebrionis and other coleopteran-active subspecies. Host range of B. thuringiensis tenebrionis and susceptibility levels of some pest species. The impact of B. thuringiensis tenebrionis on nor-target animals. Control of coleoptera by -exotoxin. Field trials with B. thuringiensis tenebrionis. Future prospects. Bacillus thuringiensis in the environment: ecology and risk assesssment. Role in the environment. Risk assessment. Resistance to bacillus thuringiensis and resistance management. Field resistance development to B. thuringiensis. Laboratory selection for resistance. Cross resistance of B. thuringiensis to chemicals and other B. thuringiensis strains. Genetics of resistance. Mechanisms of resistance. Strategies for delaying resistance development. The use of bacillus thuringiensis in developing countries. History and usage of B. thuringiensis in developing nations. Strain survey and selection. Production levels and costs. Inexpensive and local fermentation media. Low technology fermentation procedures. Stability and formulation. Field application. Further development of B. thuringiensis. Future role for B. thuringiensis in developing countries. Production of bacillus thuringiensis insecticides for experimental and commercial uses. Optimization of production methods. Production methods for B. thuringiensis. Quality control.

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The Challenge of Bacillus thuringiensis
Diversity of Bacillus thuringiensis Toxins and Genes
Crystal Protein Mutants

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