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Lumbar spine and sacroiliac joints
2 other sections not shown
annulus apophyseal joints articular processes associated backache biomechanics cervical spine chronic clinical degenerative changes demonstrated diagnosis disc prolapse disc protrusion discomfort distal effect examination extension extensor facet joints flexed Flexibility exercise flexion foramen fracture function give rise hyperextension increased injury instance intervertebral discs intervertebral foramen joint play assessment kyphosis lesions ligamentum flavum longitudinal ligament lordosis low back pain lumbar lordosis lumbar spine lumbosacral joint manipulation medial mobility movement muscle spasm nerve root entrapment neurological nucleus pulposus occur paraesthesiae particularly patient pelvic tilt posterolateral posture pressure proximal thoracic radicular referred pain restricted root compression rotation sacroiliac dysfunction sacroiliac joints sacroiliac ligaments sacrum sciatica scoliosis segmental shoulder side flexion signs sinuvertebral nerve sitting spinal canal spinal joint dysfunction spinal stenosis spinous processes spondylolysis stenosis stress test stretching supine symptoms syndrome techniques therapist thigh thoracic spine thoracolumbar traction transverse processes treatment trigger points usually vertebral bodies whiplash X-ray