Back to the Schoolyard: The Daily Practice of Medieval and Renaissance Education
After about 1300, most schools in the Netherlands came under secular rule. It managed to create good and accessible schools, causing a hey-day for education in the 14th, 15th and 16th century. As a result, more than half of the children participated in basic instruction and literacy rate went relatively high. A contemporary Italian visitor noted with awe that 'in the Low Countries everybody could read and write, even the peasants'. In the 16th century, the curriculum changed because of the Reformation and the availability of printed texts. In this book, the favourable situation in the Netherlands is compared with the rest of Western Europe. Medieval and Renaissance schools have been studied before, but never from the perspective of those who experienced it on a daily basis. Recent excavations on the sites of late-medieval schools and boarding houses revealed the objects used by pupils and teachers for reading, writing, mathematics, and school life in general. Combining those finds with texts and hundreds of depictions of school scenes in manuscripts, frescoes, sculpture, stained glass and early prints, the practice of education could be reconstructed. The book gives a detailed overview of the material school culture, allowing a rare glimpse into a late-medieval classroom.
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SCHOOL LIFE EXCAVATED
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alphabet Alpirsbach archaeological Aristotle Arithmetic Author bench beret Bois-le-Duc Book of Hours boys British Library Bruges Brussels building cathedral cesspit child Christ church cloak clothes context daer decorated depicted dressed Dutch excavated fifteenth finds France French fresco girls Gorinchem grammar school Groningen hand holding a book hornbook inkwell inv.no learning leather lectern Leiden lessons Liege London manuscript master Matthaus medieval Mercury Middle Ages misericord Museum Netherlands objects paddle painted Palazzo Trinci Paris personifications Photo taken planets preserved printed Priscian programme punishment pupils Quadrivium reading Renaissance saint school sack school scene schoolboys schoolmaster Schouleel 1960 seated seen seven liberal arts shoes shown shows side sitting sixteenth century slate standing stylus styluses teacher teaching theme trom tunic usually Vatican City wall wax tablets wearing window wooden writing peg writing tablet zodiac signs Zwolle