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Abies Adirondacks Agric ambrosia beetle aphid areas aspen attack balsam fir balsam fir stands balsam fir-spruce bark Basham l953 Baxter l952 Belyea l952a birch black spruce Blais Bonner l94l borer Bowman l944 Boyce Brunswick buds butt rot Canada causal organisms comprehensive coniferous conifers Craighead l950 damage diameter Diseases ecological Edaphic effect fir and spruce foliage following fire forest types fungi germination girdling Graham and Orr Graham l952 Hansbrough l944 hardwoods height growth hemlock Hymenoptera inches d.b.h. insect Kaufert l935 Lake litter living trees mature McCallum l928 Minn Minnesota Moisture Relations Morris l95l needles Northeast northern occur Ontario pathological percent Phloem Phytopathology red spruce reported root Sargent l898 season seed seedlings silvicultural slash Spaulding and Hansbrough spruce budworm spruce-fir staminate flower studies SYNECOLOGY temperature transition trees tree species twig water table Westveld l928 white butt white spruce Windthrow wood yellow birch Zon l9l4