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Abies Adirondacks advance reproduction Agric ambrosia beetle aphid areas aspen attack Balch balsam fir balsam fir stands bark Basham Baxter Belyea birch black spruce Blais Bonner Borer Boyce Brunswick buds butt rot Canada COMMERCIAL CLEAR CUT comprehensive cone coniferous conifers Craighead 1950 damage Davidson and Newell dead trees decay development of balsam diameter ecological effect favorable fir and spruce foliage following fire forest types fungi fungus girdling Graham and Orr growth rate Hansbrough 1944 hardwoods height growth hemlock Hymenoptera inches d.b.h. increase insect Kaufert Lake larvae litter mature McCallum Minnesota moisture relations Morris needles Northeast occur Ontario overstory percent percentage Phloem Polyporus Recknagel red spruce reported root Sargent season seed seedlings shoots silvicultural slash soil Spaulding and Hansbrough spruce budworm spruce-fir studies swamps temperature transition trees tree species trunk rots twigs usually Vincent water table Westveld white butt white spruce Windthrow wood yellow birch