Basic Physics of Ultrasonographic Imaging
The present volume on basic physics of ultrasonographic imaging procedures provides clear and concise information on the physics behind ultrasound examinations in diagnostic imaging. It attempts to present the subject from a simple approach that should make it possible for the target groups to comprehend the important concepts which form the physical basis of ultrasonic imaging. The main target group of this manual is radiological technologists and radiographers working with diagnostic ultrasound in developing countries.
Clinicians and nurse practitioners may also find the simple presentation appealing. A conscious effort has been made to avoid detailed mathematical treatment of the subject. The emphasis is on simplicity.
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acoustic boundaries acoustic impedance Acoustic shadowing amplitude angle of incidence array artefacts attenuation axial resolution B-mode beam diverges beam energy beam focusing beam frequency beam of ultrasound beam path beam shape beam sweep beam width cavitation centre frequency Chapter clinical ultrasound compressibility contrast resolution crystal elements decibel detect diagnostic ultrasound distance Doppler Doppler shift effect electrical electronic exposure factors focal form of energy frame rate Fresnel zone high framing rates high frequencies image characteristics image frame image quality lateral resolution materials medium particles motion moving structures number of scan particle displacement physical piezoelectric effect propagation pulsed wave real-time imaging reference intensity reflectors refraction returning echoes scan lines scan lines contributing segmental pulsing signal sizes source of ultrasound spatial resolution specular reflection temperature tissue depth ultrasonic energy ultrasonic imaging ultrasound beam ultrasound equipment ultrasound wave velocity of ultrasound vibrations wave cycle wavelength