Basic Statistics and Epidemiology: A Practical Guide

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Radcliffe Publishing, 2007 - Medical - 168 pages
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Most healthcare professionals need to be able to read and understand clinical evidence, and make a judgement on what treatments are effective. To do this, they need a basic grounding in statistics and epidemiology. These are areas which many people find hard to understand, fear or find distinctly uncomfortable. However, readers of this book will find it stimulates their interest and helps them understand the basics quickly and simply. It provides every doctor, nurse, health manager, researcher and student with a concise, practical guide. This straightforward primer in basic statistics emphasises its practical use in epidemiology and public health, providing understanding of essential topics such as study design, data analysis and statistical methods used in the execution of medical research. This new Edition includes fresh sections on Correlation and Linear Regression, as well as brand new exercises reflecting current working life. Clearly worded and assuming no prior knowledge, it gives full step-by-step guidance on performing statistical calculations. Illustrated by numerous examples, and containing exercises with detailed answers, it will help readers grasp the main points of these complex subjects with ease.
 

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Contents

What are statistics?
1
Populations and samples
3
Random sampling
7
Presenting data
11
Frequencies percentages proportions and rates
15
Types of data
19
Mean median and mode
23
Centiles
27
What is epidemiology?
81
Bias and confounding
83
Measuring disease frequency
87
Measuring association in epidemiology
95
Prevalence studies
103
Questionnaires
105
Cohort studies
111
Casecontrol studies
115

Standard deviation
29
Standard error
33
Normal distribution
35
Confidence intervals
39
Probability
43
Hypothesis tests and Pvalues
47
The ttest
51
Parametric and nonparametric tests
57
Correlation and regression
59
Chisquared test
73
Statistical power and sample size
79
Randomised controlled trials
119
Screening
125
Glossary of terms
133
Statistical tables
135
Exercises
141
Answers to exercises
149
References
159
Further reading
161
Index
163
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About the author (2007)

Antony Stewart is Visiting Professor in Epidemiology, Staffordshire University.

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