Basic Chemical Thermodynamics
The fourth edition of this widely acclaimed textbook provides a concise and easy-to-understand introduction to chemical thermodynamics. Beginning with an examination of equilibrium in familiar mechanical objects, the book gives a straightforward account of the factors that determine equilibrium in chemical systems. The underlying principles of thermodynamics are discussed, then applied to a wide range of physicochemical systems. The problems of non-ideal solutions and the concept of activity are covered, and the text offers a useful introduction to the molecular basis of thermodynamics. This new edition is fully illustrated, and features a clearer text design and larger format. Many new sample problems and worked examples are included. Students in thermodynamics will continue to find this popular book a clear introduction to an important subject.
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ENTROPY AND EQUILIBRIUM
EQUILIBRIUM IN CHEMICAL SYSTEMS
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atm pressure boiling point Calculate chemical potential chemical reactions chemical thermodynamics Chemistry components consider constant pressure deﬁned deﬁnition determine dilute solution dissociation electrochemical cell energy levels enthalpies of formation enthalpy change entropy change equation equilibrium constant equilibrium position example expansion expressed ﬁnd ﬁrst free-energy change freezing point gases Gibbs free energy heat capacity Henry's Law hydrogen ideal solution illustrated in Fig internal energy kJ mol liquid maximum measure mechanical system microstates molality molar mole fraction mole of gas mole of reaction molecular weight molecules n-butane naphthalene negative number of molecules number of moles obtain partial pressure partition function perfect gas phase position of equilibrium potential energy quantity Raoult's Law reactants relation reversible change rotational RTIn RTln section 4.4 solid solubility solvent standard electrode potential system at constant thermodynamic properties vapour pressure vibrational zero