## Basic thermodynamicsIt is well known that thermodynamics presents students with particular difficulties. They find the concepts evasive and the methods obscure. These problems arise because it is traditional to emphasize at the outset how general thermodynamics is. Unfortunately, when ideas are introduced in an unspecific context they fail to make contact with the student's experience - such ideas do not become part of the physical intuition of the student. In this introductory text the subject is developed in stages beginning with the basic notions, which are illustrated using an ideal gas as a model system. The generalization of these concepts is achieved first using the classical laws of thermodynamics and second using the formalism of Gibbs to provide a systematic introduction to the thermodynamic potentials. Work processes on polarizable media subject to electric and magnetic fields are discussed and transformations of matter, including phase change processes and chemical reactions, are treated in detail. The book contains many worked examples, and approximately 250 questions, which are keyed to the text. The questions include traditional and applied topics, and longer questions have been programmed to guide the student. |

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### Contents

Introduction | 1 |

The ideal gas temperature | 7 |

Processes in ideal gas systems | 21 |

Copyright | |

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### Common terms and phrases

adiabatic process applied field assume atoms body Calculate capacitor capacity at constant Carnot cycle Carnot theorem chemical potential composite system condition conductor Consider constant pressure constant volume constraint coordinates corresponding critical point current source cylinder defined denote density derivatives Determine electric engine enthalpy example extensive variables external fixed function fundamental relation Gibbs equation Gibbs free energy given heat input heat reservoir heat transfer Helmholtz free energy Hence homogeneous function ideal gas illustrate initial and final interaction internal energy irreversible isentropic process isothermal isothermal process Legendre transform magnetic field mass Maxwell relations medium mixture molar heat capacity mole non-quasistatic obtained parameter particles phase change piston properties quasistatic process question represent reversible process reversibly saturated second law Section shown in Fig simple system single-component solenoid specific steam Suppose thermal equilibrium tion turbine velocity Waals gas zeroth law