Basics in Medical Education

Front Cover
World Scientific, 2003 - Medical - 399 pages
1 Review
Medical education, the art and science behind medical teaching and learning, has progressed remarkably. Teaching and learning have become more scientific and rigorous, curricula are based on sound pedagogical principles, and problem-based and other forms of active and self-directed learning have become the mainstream. We have progressed from the role of problem-identifier to that of solution-provider. This book provides a balanced overview of the OC whyOCO of medical education, emphasizing the need for change and adaptation, and the OC howOCO, by demonstrating the way concepts and theories of medical education can be of immediate benefit to the medical teacher. In short, this is a simple and non-intimidating book for general medical teachers to enhance their understanding of medical education and to improve their teaching. Royalties from the sale of this book will benefit basic health care needs of children in developing countries. Sample Chapter(s). Chapter 1: Questions and Questioning Technique (103 KB). Contents: Basic Competencies in Medical Teaching; Historical Perspectives in Medical Education; Educational Concepts and Philosophies; Curriculum and Learning Cycle; Educational Objectives; Instructional Methodologies: General; Instructional Methodology: Clinical Teaching; Instructional Methodology: Problem-Based Learning; Assessment and Evaluation; Internet and Medical Education; Research in Medical Education. Readership: Medical teachers from all disciplines as well as basic science and clinical teachers."
 

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Contents

Basic Competencies in Medical Teaching
3
Educational Principles
4
Curriculum Planning and Design
5
Instructional Methodologies
6
Student Assessment
7
Conclusion
9
References and Further Readings
10
Historical Perspectives in Medical Education
13
Effects of Good Communication
202
Teaching Communication in Conventional Ways
203
Communication is a Learnable Skill
204
References and Further Readings
208
ProblemBased Learning PEL Concepts and Rationale
213
Historical Overview
215
Objectives and Outcomes of PBL
216
Conclusion
217

Asian Medical Schools
15
Deficiencies of the System
16
Call for Reforms
18
Role of Medical Education Units
21
Conclusion
22
References and Further Readings
23
Teaching and Learning Concepts
27
LearnerCentered Learning
28
Surface versus Deep Learning
32
Experiential Learning
34
The Common Themes
37
References and Further Readings
38
Understanding the Learner
41
Conceptual Underpinning
42
Implication of Learning Principles
43
References and Further Readings
46
Building the Skills of Learning
49
Concepts of Metacognition
50
References and Further Readings
53
Curriculum Design and Implementation
57
Definition
58
Strategies for Implementation of Curriculum Innovations
63
References and Further Readings
67
Learning Cycle
69
Reference and Further Reading
71
Classification of Educational Objectives
75
Cognitive Domain
78
Psychomotor Domain
81
Affective Domain
82
References and Further Readings
86
Writing Educational Objectives
89
The Purpose of Educational Objectives
90
Characteristics of Good Educational Objectives
91
Components of Educational Objectives
93
Pitfalls to Avoid
94
References and Further Readings
95
Overview of Teaching and Learning Methods
99
Educational Effectiveness of Teaching and Learning Methods
100
Organization of Chapters
103
Making Lecture Effective
105
Advantages
106
Limitations and Concerns
107
Components
108
Ways to Make Lecture More LearnerCentered
110
References and Further Readings
112
Understanding Small Group
115
Advantages
116
Challenges for Small Group
118
Life Cycle of a Group
119
Types of Group
120
Role and Responsibilities of Tutors in Small Groups
121
References and Further Readings
122
CaseBased Teaching
123
Educational Rationale
124
Concerns for CaseBased Teaching
125
Variations of Cases for Teaching
126
Preparing the Case for Teaching
127
References and Further Readings
130
RolePlay
131
Advantages
132
Applications
133
Implementation Considerations
134
Counseling Focused
136
Clinical Skill Practice
137
References and Further Readings
139
Questions and Questioning Technique
141
Types of Question
143
Dealing with Students Wrong Responses
145
Use of Silence
147
References and Further Readings
150
Providing Effective Feedback
153
Educational Rationale
154
Nature of Good Feedback
155
Feedback in Group Settings
158
References and Further Readings
159
Conceptual Framework for Clinical Teaching
163
Precepting in the Context of Clinical Teaching
165
Determining the Learners Needs
166
Knowledge Base for Clinical Teaching
167
References and Further Readings
170
Delivery of Clinical Teaching
171
Models of Delivery of Clinical Teaching
172
Teaching Clinical Reasoning Process
175
Common Mistakes During Clinical Teaching
178
References and Further Readings
180
Assessment of Clinical Competence
181
Assessing Clinical Competence
182
CriterionBased Assessment
185
References and Further Readings
186
Teaching Procedural Skills
189
Educational Principles
190
Broad Categories of Procedural Skills
191
Less Desirable Way of Teaching Procedural Skill
192
Barriers to Learning and Teaching Procedural Skills
196
References and Further Readings
198
Teaching Communication Skills
201
The PEL Process
219
Meeting with Case Writers
220
Session One
221
Session Two
223
References and Further Readings
224
The Tutor and the CaseWriter
225
The Tutors Roles and Responsibilities
226
Practical Skills
227
The PBL CaseWriter
229
References and Further Readings
233
Student Assessment in PEL
235
Goals of Student Assessment in PBL
236
Objective Examinations
237
References and Further Readings
238
Implementation Options of PEL
241
PBL in Existing Medical Schools
242
Issues Challenges and Options
245
More Research
246
References and Further Readings
247
Overview of Assessment and Evaluation
251
Concepts of Assessment and Evaluation
252
Value of Needs Assessment
254
Assessor and Assessment Audience
255
The Broad Purposes of Student Assessment
257
Directions in Student Assessment
258
References and Further Readings
260
Formative and Summative Assessment
261
Summative Assessment
262
References and Further Readings
265
Characteristics of Assessment Instruments
267
Reliability
269
Objectivity
270
Value
271
Errors in Test Items
272
References and Further Readings
274
Road Map to Student Assessment
275
Educational Objectives or Domains
276
Level of Knowledge
277
Formative or Summative Assessment
278
Reliability of the Instrument
279
References and Further Readings
282
Multiple Choice Questions
283
Advantages
284
Limitations
285
Components of MCQ
286
Examples of MCQ With Hierarchical Cognitive Objectives
287
Further Improvements in MCQ
293
Evaluating MCQ
294
References and Further Readings
297
Essay Questions and Variations
299
Advantages
300
Challenges and Limitations
301
Basic Categories of Essay Questions
302
Short Answer Questions SAQ
303
Modified Essay Questions MEQ
304
References and Further Readings
306
Oral Examinations
309
Advantages
310
Limitations
311
Improving the Validity and Reliability of Oral Examinations
312
References and Further Readings
315
Standardized Patient
317
Why Do We Need Standardized Patients?
319
Advantages
320
Implementation Considerations
322
References and Further Readings
323
Portfolio
325
The Value of Portfolio
327
Nature of Artifacts in Portfolio
329
Organization of the Portfolio
331
References and Further Readings
333
Teaching Program Evaluation
335
Reaction
337
Learning
338
Transfer
339
References and Further Readings
341
Internet and Medical Education
345
What is ELearning?
346
Design Considerations in ELearning
350
Learning Objects in ELearning Models
351
References and Further Readings
354
Research in Medical Education
357
Nature of Research in Medical Education
358
Difficulties with Interventional Research
361
Value of Qualitative Studies
362
Secondary Researches in Medical Education
363
Framework for Research
364
Priority Research Areas in Medical Education
365
Collaboration in Medical Education Research
366
References and Further Readings
367
CalgaryCambridge Observation Guide
369
Example of Standardized Patient Case Script
375
Further Resources
381
Glossary of Terms
385
Index
397
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