## Bayesian analysis of consumer willingness-to-payThis dissertation examines three problems in the use of discrete choice models to estimate consumer willingness-to-pay (WTP). First, we examine two parameterizations of choice models to estimate WTP. For maximum-likelihood estimation of homogenous and latent-class versions of the models, WTP estimates are invariant to parameterization. We show that Bayesian estimates are not strictly invariant. In sparse data conditions, the WTP estimates can be sensitive to parameterization. In this setting, indirect identification can lead to implied WTP distributions with poorly behaved or even undefined moments. Second, we study the WTP for intangible product attributes. We present a Bayesian factor-choice model to estimate the WTP for brand image associations. The factor model accounts for the binary nature of the manifest variables while the choice model is parameterized to directly estimate the WTP for the brand image factors. We estimate the model parameters simultaneously, avoiding the attenuation bias from sequential estimation. We find that the brand image data explains much of the unobserved heterogeneity in the distribution of WTP for the brands in our application. Third, we study the correlation in preferences for private label brands across unrelated categories of consumer packaged goods. We derive a multi-category choice model from consumer surplus maximization, which directly identifies the WTP for the private label brand. A variance components approach is used to handle the dimensionality problems inherent to multi-category models. This allows us to parsimoniously compute the WTP for the private label brand across categories. We find the correlation in private label intercepts computed from a conventional linear utility model overstates the correlation in private label valuation due to the correlation between the intercepts and price sensitivity. |

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### Contents

Bayesian Analysis of Discrete Choice Models of | 5 |

Attributes and Levels | 31 |

WTP Estimates for Sedan Data | 34 |

9 other sections not shown

### Common terms and phrases

alternative Antilock Brakes Attribute Level mean Audio Premium Audio bid amount binary factor model brand image associations brand image factors Camera 1 Camera camera data Camry Maxima Accord choice probabilities compute consumer consumer surplus correlation in private cross-category correlations dimensional directly identifies distribution of WTP estimates of WTP Exciting factor scores Ford Taurus full conditional distribution homogenous model Honda Accord image attributes indirect utility function individual level individual-level Input Method latent Level mean std linear RUM linear utility model logit market share market value Maxima Accord Passat mean WTP model parameters Nissan Maxima optimal price parameterizations post-processing posterior distribution posterior mean price coefficient price sensitivity prior private label intercepts private label WTP product attributes reservation price Scenario sedans sequential factor-choice model simultaneous factor-choice model simultaneous model standard deviation Standard errors surplus maximization Surplus Model Table Toyota Camry unobserved heterogeneity variances vector VW Passat WTP estimates WTP's