Bearing Design in Machinery: Engineering Tribology and Lubrication

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CRC Press, Sep 25, 2002 - Technology & Engineering - 664 pages
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Covering the fundamental principles of bearing selection, design, and tribology, this book discusses basic physical principles of bearing selection, lubrication, design computations, advanced bearings materials, arrangement, housing, and seals, as well as recent developments in bearings for high-speed aircraft engines. The author explores unique solutions to challenging design problems and presents rare case studies, such as hydrodynamic and rolling-element bearings in series and adjustable hydrostatic pads for large bearings. He focuses on the design considerations and calculations specific to hydrodynamic journal bearings, hydrostatic bearings, and rolling element bearings.
 

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Contents

Classification and Selection of Bearings
1
12 DRY AND BOUNDARY LUBRICATION BEARINGS
5
13 HYDRODYNAMIC BEARING
6
14 HYDROSTATIC BEARING
9
15 MAGNETIC BEARING
12
16 ROLLINGELEMENT BEARINGS
14
17 SELECTION CRITERIA
17
18 BEARINGS FOR PRECISION APPLICATIONS
19
1011 JOURNAL BEARING CROSSSTIFFNESS
243
1012 APPLICATIONS
244
1014 GEAR PUMP CHARACTERISTICS
248
1015 FLOW DIVIDERS
252
Bearing Materials
267
112 WEAR MECHANISMS
273
113 SELECTION OF BEARING MATERIALS
275
114 METAL BEARINGS
279

19 NONCONTACT BEARINGS FOR PRECISION APPLICATIONS
20
110 BEARING SUBJECTED TO FREQUENT STARTS AND STOPS
21
111 EXAMPLE PROBLEMS Example Problem 11
22
Lubricant Viscosity
33
22 SIMPLE SHEAR FLOW
34
23 BOUNDARY CONDITIONS OF FLOW
36
24 VISCOSITY UNITS
37
25 VISCOSITYTEMPERATURE CURVES
38
26 VISCOSITY INDEX
40
27 VISCOSITY AS A FUNCTION OF PRESSURE
41
28 VISCOSITY AS A FUNCTION OF SHEAR RATE
43
Fundamental Properties of Lubricants
47
32 CRUDE OILS
48
33 BASE OIL COMPONENTS
49
34 SYNTHETIC OILS
50
35 GREASES
56
36 ADDITIVES TO LUBRICANTS
58
Principles of Hydrodynamic Lubrication
67
42 ASSUMPTIONS OF HYDRODYNAMIC LUBRICATION THEORY
69
43 HYDRODYNAMIC LONG BEARING
72
45 FLOW IN A LONG BEARING
74
46 PRESSURE WAVE
79
47 PLANESLIDER LOAD CAPACITY
81
49 FLOW BETWEEN TWO PARALLEL PLATES
82
410 FLUID FILM BETWEEN A CYLINDER AND A FLAT PLATE
84
411 SOLUTION IN DIMENSIONLESS TERMS
86
Basic Hydrodynamic Equations
94
52 REYNOLDS HYDRODYNAMIC LUBRICATION EQUATION
97
53 WIDE PLANESLIDER
103
54 FLUID FILM BETWEEN A FLAT PLATE AND A CYLINDER
104
55 TRANSITION TO TURBULENCE
105
56 CYLINDRICAL COORDINATES
110
57 SQUEEZEFILM FLOW
111
Long Hydrodynamic Journal Bearings
118
62 REYNOLDS EQUATION FOR A JOURNAL BEARING
120
63 JOURNAL BEARING WITH ROTATING SLEEVE
121
64 COMBINED ROLLING AND SLIDING
122
65 PRESSURE WAVE IN A LONG JOURNAL BEARING
125
66 SOMMERFELD SOLUTION OF THE PRESSURE WAVE
127
67 JOURNAL BEARING LOAD CAPACITY
129
68 LOAD CAPACITY BASED ON SOMMERFELD CONDITIONS
131
69 FRICTION IN A LONG JOURNAL BEARING
132
610 POWER LOSS ON VISCOUS FRICTION
134
612 PRACTICAL PRESSURE BOUNDARY CONDITIONS
135
Short Journal Bearings
147
72 SHORTBEARING ANALYSIS
149
73 FLOW IN THE AXIAL DIRECTION
153
75 VISCOUS FRICTION
154
76 JOURNAL BEARING STIFFNESS
155
Design Charts for FiniteLength Journal Bearings
161
82 DESIGN PROCEDURE
162
83 MINIMUM FILM THICKNESS
163
84 RAIMONDI AND BOYD CHARTS AND TABLES
164
85 FLUID FILM TEMPERATURE
181
86 PEAK TEMPERATURE IN LARGE HEAVILY LOADED BEARINGS
188
87 DESIGN BASED ON EXPERIMENTAL CURVES
190
Practical Applications of Journal Bearings
196
92 HYDRODYNAMIC BEARING WHIRL
197
93 ELLIPTICAL BEARINGS
198
94 THREELOBE BEARINGS
199
95 PIVOTEDPAD JOURNAL BEARING
200
96 BEARINGS MADE OF COMPLIANT MATERIALS
202
97 FOIL BEARINGS
203
98 ANALYSIS OF A FOIL BEARING
204
99 FOIL BEARINGS IN HIGHSPEED TURBINES
207
910 DESIGN EXAMPLE OF A COMPLIANT BEARING
209
Hydrostatic Bearings
212
102 HYDROSTATIC CIRCULAR PADS
214
104 POWER LOSSES IN THE HYDROSTATIC PAD
218
105 OPTIMIZATION FOR MINIMUM POWER LOSS
219
106 LONG RECTANGULAR HYDROSTATIC BEARINGS
222
107 MULTIDIRECTIONAL HYDROSTATIC SUPPORT
223
108 HYDROSTATIC PAD STIFFNESS FOR CONSTANT FLOW RATE
226
109 CONSTANTPRESSURESUPPLY PADS WITH RESTRICTORS
233
1010 ANALYSIS OF STIFFNESS FOR A CONSTANT PRESSURE SUPPLY
235
115 NONMETAL BEARING MATERIALS
283
RollingElement Bearings
308
122 CLASSIFICATION OF ROLLINGELEMENT BEARINGS
314
123 HERTZ CONTACT STRESSES IN ROLLING BEARINGS
323
124 THEORETICAL LINE CONTACT
324
125 ELLIPSOIDAL CONTACT AREA IN BALL BEARINGS
331
126 ROLLINGELEMENT SPEED
340
127 ELASTOHYDRODYNAMIC LUBRICATION IN ROLLING BEARINGS
342
128 ELASTOHYDRODYNAMIC LUBRICATION OF A LINE CONTACT
345
129 ELASTOHYDRODYNAMIC LUBRICATION OF BALL BEARINGS
351
1210 FORCE COMPONENTS IN AN ANGULAR CONTACT BEARING
361
Selection and Design of Rolling Bearings
378
132 FATIGUE LIFE CALCULATIONS
390
133 BEARING OPERATING TEMPERATURE
395
134 ROLLING BEARING LUBRICATION
399
135 BEARING PRECISION
411
136 INTERNAL CLEARANCE OF ROLLING BEARINGS
414
137 VIBRATIONS AND NOISE IN ROLLING BEARINGS
416
138 SHAFT AND HOUSING FITS
418
139 STRESS AND DEFORMATION DUE TO TIGHT FITS
429
1310 BEARING MOUNTING ARRANGEMENTS
436
1311 ADJUSTABLE BEARING ARRANGEMENT
440
1312 EXAMPLES OF BEARING ARRANGEMENTS IN MACHINERY
447
1313 SELECTION OF OIL VERSUS GREASE
458
1314 GREASE LUBRICATION
460
1315 GREASE LIFE
467
1316 LIQUID LUBRICATION SYSTEMS
471
1317 HIGHTEMPERATURE APPLICATIONS
478
1318 SPEED LIMIT OF STANDARD BEARINGS
479
1319 MATERIALS FOR ROLLING BEARINGS
481
1320 PROCESSES FOR MANUFACTURING HIGHPURITY STEEL
484
1321 CERAMIC MATERIALS FOR ROLLING BEARINGS
485
1322 ROLLING BEARING CAGES
490
1324 MECHANICAL SEALS
498
Testing of Friction and Wear
502
142 TESTING MACHINES FOR DRY AND BOUNDARY LUBRICATION
503
143 FRICTION TESTING UNDER HIGH FREQUENCY OSCILLATIONS
505
144 MEASUREMENT OF JOURNAL BEARING FRICTION
509
145 TESTING OF DYNAMIC FRICTION
511
146 FRICTIONTESTING MACHINE WITH A HYDROSTATIC PAD
512
147 FOURBEARINGS MEASUREMENT APPARATUS
514
148 APPARATUS FOR MEASURING FRICTION IN LINEAR MOTION
517
Hydrodynamic Bearings Under Dynamic Conditions
521
152 ANALYSIS OF SHORT BEARINGS UNDER DYNAMIC CONDITIONS
522
153 JOURNAL CENTER TRAJECTORY
526
Friction Characteristics
531
162 FRICTION IN HYDRODYNAMIC AND MIXED LUBRICATION
532
163 FRICTION OF PLASTIC AGAINST METAL
537
Modeling Dynamic Friction
540
172 DYNAMIC FRICTION MODEL FOR JOURNAL BEARINGS
542
173 DEVELOPMENT OF THE MODEL
543
174 MODELING FRICTION AT STEADY VELOCITY
546
175 MODELING DYNAMIC FRICTION
548
176 COMPARISON OF MODEL SIMULATIONS AND EXPERIMENTS
550
Case Study Composite BearingRolling Elements and Fluid Film in Series
556
182 COMPOSITEBEARING DESIGNS
558
183 PREVIOUS RESEARCH IN COMPOSITE BEARINGS
563
184 COMPOSITE BEARING WITH CENTRIFUGAL MECHANISM
564
185 PERFORMANCE UNDER DYNAMIC CONDITIONS
568
186 THERMAL EFFECTS
576
NonNewtonian Viscoelastic Effects
582
192 VISCOELASTIC FLUID MODELS1
584
193 ANALYSIS OF VISCOELASTIC FLUID FLOW
586
194 PRESSURE WAVE IN A JOURNAL BEARING
590
195 SQUEEZEFILM FLOW
592
Orthopedic Joint Implants
596
202 ARTIFICIAL HIP JOINT AS A BEARING
598
203 HISTORY OF THE HIP REPLACEMENT JOINT
599
204 MATERIALS FOR JOINT IMPLANTS
601
205 DYNAMIC FRICTION
602
Units and Definitions of Material Properties
605
Numerical Integration
609
Bibliography
615
Index
625
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